Nuclear Science Research Institute
JAEA-Review 2021-006, 248 Pages, 2021/12
Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) is composed of Planning and Coordination Office and six departments, namely Department of Operational Safety Administration, Department of Radiation Protection, Engineering Services Department, Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, Department of Fukushima Technology Development and Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, and each department manages facilities and develops related technologies to achieve the "Middle and long-term Plan" successfully and effectively. In order to contribute the future research and development and to promote management business, this annual report summarizes information on the activities of NSRI of JFY 2015 and 2016 as well as the activity on research and development carried out by Nuclear Safety Research Center, Advanced Science Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Material Science Research Center, and development activities of Nuclear Human Resources Development Center, using facilities of NSRI.
Planning and Co-ordination Office, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness
JAEA-Review 2021-019, 58 Pages, 2021/11
In response to the directives of the 4th medium-to-long-term objectives, Japan Atomic Energy Agency will formulate the 4th medium-to-long-term plan and run its operation according to the plan from the fiscal year 2022. Consequently, the Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness has reviewed the strategies of the safety research for contributing to the demand, "the continuous improvement of nuclear safety and the effectiveness of nuclear disaster prevention". It was also discussed how to proceed the safety research over the medium-to-long-term plan period based on the proposed new strategies. From the viewpoint of developing human resources and maintaining research capabilities in the sector, discussion was made on measures to pass on the knowledge and skills of senior and mid-career researchers to young researchers. The main elements of the proposed strategies are: (1) to efficiently and effectively develop both problem-solving research and advanced or leading research, considering the importance and needs on the nuclear safety and corresponding to regulatory trends and introduction of new technologies, (2) to produce research results of high quality for social implementation, including proactive proposal of measures for enhancing rationality of nuclear safety and regulation by utilizing risk information, and (3) to promote development of human resources and maintenance of technological base through challenging new research subjects. This report summarizes results of the discussion on the medium-to-long-term safety research strategies and the research plans based on the proposed strategies.
Department of HTTR
JAEA-Review 2021-017, 81 Pages, 2021/11
The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first High-Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) constructed in Japan at the Oarai Research and Development Institute of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency with 30MW in thermal power and 950C of outlet coolant temperature. The purpose of the HTTR is to establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs. The HTTR has accumulated a lot of experience of HTGRs' operation and maintenance up to the present time throughout rated power operations, safety demonstration tests, long-term high temperature operations and demonstration tests relevant to HTGRs' R&Ds. In the fiscal year 2019, we continued to make effort to restart operations of the HTTR that stopped since the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. It is necessary for the HTTR reoperation to prove conformity with the new regulatory requirements for research reactors enacted in December 2013. So we might cope with government agency to pass the inspection of application document for the HTTR licensing. This report summarizes the activities carried out in the fiscal year 2019, which were the situation of the new regulatory requirements screening of the HTTR, the operation and maintenance of the HTTR, R&Ds relevant to commercial-scale HTGRs, the international cooperation on HTGRs and so on.
Center for Computational Science & e-Systems
JAEA-Evaluation 2021-001, 66 Pages, 2021/11
Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on "the plan to achieve the mid- and long-term goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency", has been performed by Center for Computational Science & e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established a committee consisting of external experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advice for the assistance of the future research and development. This report summarizes the results of the R&D performed by CCSE in FY2020 (April 1st, 2020 - March 31st, 2021), the results expected at the end of the 3rd mid and long-term goal period, and the evaluation by the committee on them.
Nakamura, Shoji; Shibahara, Yuji*; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(10), p.1061 - 1070, 2021/10
In a well-thermalized neutron field, it is principally possible to drive a thermal-neutron capture cross-section without considering an epithermal neutron component. This was demonstrated by a neutron activation method using the graphite thermal column (TC-Pn) of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. First, in order to confirm that the graphite thermal column was a well-thermalized neutron field, neutron irradiation was performed with neutron flux monitors: Au, Co, Sc, Cu, and Mo. The TC-Pn was confirmed to be extremely thermalized on the basis of Westcott's convention, because the thermal-neutron flux component took a constant value regardless of the sensitivity of each flux monitor to epithermal neutrons. Next, as a demonstration, the thermal-neutron capture cross section of Ta(n,)Ta reaction was measured using the graphite thermal column, and then derived to be 20.50.4 barn, which supported the evaluated value of 20.40.3 barn. The Ta nuclide could be useful as a flux monitor that complements the sensitivity between Au and Mo monitors.
Xu, P. G.; Liss, K.-D.*
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 5(2), p.11_1 - 11_14, 2021/06
Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator
JAEA-Review 2020-074, 105 Pages, 2021/03
The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator, RI Production Facility and TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). This annual report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 2018. We carried out the operation and maintenance, utilization, upgrading of utilization techniques, safety administration and international cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on.
Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator
JAEA-Review 2020-073, 113 Pages, 2021/03
The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator, RI Production Facility and Tritium Process Laboratory. This annual report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 2017. We carried out the operation and maintenance, utilization, upgrading of utilization techniques, safety administration and international cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on.
Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator
JAEA-Review 2020-072, 102 Pages, 2021/03
The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator, RI Production Facility and Tritium Process Laboratory). This annual report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 2016. We carried out the operation and maintenance, utilization, upgrading of utilization techniques, safety administration and international cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on.
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi*; Sono, Hiroki; Kishimoto, Katsumi; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Kinase, Masami; Osa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Horiguchi, Hironori; Inoi, Hiroyuki; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-056, 51 Pages, 2021/03
A group named as "The group for investigation of reasonable safety assurance based on graded approach", which consists of about 10 staffs from Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Safety and Nuclear Security Administration Department, departments for management of nuclear facility, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness, aims to realize effective graded approach (GA) about management of facilities and regulatory compliance of JAEA. The group started its activities in September, 2019 and has had discussions through 10 meetings and email communications. In the meetings, basic ideas of GA, status of compliance with new regulatory standards at each facility, new inspection system, etc were discussed, while individual investigation at each facility were shared among the members. This report is compiled with expectation that it will help promote rational and effective safety management based on GA by sharing contents of the activity widely inside and outside JAEA.
Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*
Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03
Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by Li(n,)H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.
Aoki, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Hiroki*; Watanabe, Kazuhiko*; Sugihara, Kozo
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-018, 45 Pages, 2021/02
Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the crystalline host rock (granite) as a part of geoscientific study of JAEA, and underground facilities of MIU are constructed down to 500m blow the ground surface. As small amount of Uranium is normally contained in granite, high concentration of radon is sometimes detected in the air of the underground facilities constructed in granitic rocks depending on their ventilation conditions. Radon concentrations in underground facilities of MIU have been measured according to the excavation progress of underground facilities or the change of ventilation system. It is recognized that the data obtained by the actual measurement of radon concentration in such underground facilities are rare and valuable. This repot summarizes the measured data from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2020, together with the information of ventilation conditions and air temperature which affect radon concentrations in underground facilities. The variation of the equilibrium factors of radon is also examined with the actually measured data. As a result, it has been found that radon concentration in the drift is high in summer and low in winter according to the natural ventilation caused by the seasonal temperature difference between in and out of the underground facilities. Furthermore, the temporary increase in the equilibrium factor of radon in the drift at the start of ventilation is supposed to be due to the aerosol increase by the ventilation flow, such as the dust blown up.
Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02
As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Keio University*
JAEA-Review 2020-047, 63 Pages, 2021/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms" conducted in FY2019. The purpose of the study is to obtain knowledge related to microorganisms that will be useful in the decommissioning process of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. For this reason, the current conditions of the microbial community inhabiting the power plant and its premises will be clarified. In the first research year, we obtained environmental samples such as soils from the south of the boundary of the plant, seabed soils near the plant, and surface water 3 km offshore from the plant, and successfully prepared their microbial genomic DNAs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed bacterial and micro
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-042, 116 Pages, 2021/01
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R and D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2019 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.
Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.1 - 8, 2021/01
The sources and mechanisms for the tritium release into the primary coolant in the JMTR and the JRR-3M containing beryllium reflectors are evaluated. It is found that the recoil release from chain reaction of Be is dominant and its calculation results agree well with trends derived from the measured variation of tritium concentration in the primary coolant. It also indicates that the simple calculation method used in this study for the tritium recoil release from the beryllium reflectors can be utilized for an estimation of the tritium release into the primary coolant for a research and testing reactors containing beryllium reflectors.
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Mineo, Hideaki; Murayama, Yoji; Hohara, Shinya*; Nakajima, Ken*; Nakatsuka, Toru; Uesaka, Mitsuru*
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO, 63(1), p.73 - 77, 2021/01
no abstracts in English
Center for Computational Science & e-Systems
JAEA-Evaluation 2020-002, 37 Pages, 2020/12
Research on advanced computational science for nuclear applications, based on "the plan to achieve the mid and long term goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency", has been performed at Center for Computational Science & e-Systems (CCSE), Japan Atomic Energy Agency. CCSE established a committee consisting of outside experts and authorities which does research evaluation and advice for the assistance of the future research and development. This report summarizes the results of the R&D performed at CCSE in FY2019 (April 1st, 2019 - March 31st, 2020) and the evaluation by the committee on them.
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-022, 34 Pages, 2020/11
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the URL will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. JAEA summarizes the research and development activities of the important issues carried out during the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan, and set out three important issues after 2020 fiscal year. After consultation with Hokkaido and Horonobe town, JAEA formulated the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year within the 3rd and 4th Mid- and Long-term Plan. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2020 fiscal year (2020/2021).
Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Uyama, Masao*; Nakaoka, Kenichi*; Fukaya, Masaaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2020-010, 142 Pages, 2020/11
In the geological disposal study of high-level radioactive waste, it is suggested that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) which is created around a tunnel by the excavation will be possible to be one of the critical path of radionuclides. Especially, the progress of cracks in and around the EDZ with time affects the safety assessment of geological disposal and it is important to understand the hydraulic change due to the progress of cracks in and around EDZ. In this collaborative research, monitoring tools made by Obayashi Corporation were installed at a total of 9 locations in the three boreholes near the depth of 370 m of East Shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory constructed in the Neogene sedimentary rock. The monitoring tool consists of one set of "optical AE sensor" for measuring of the mechanical rock mass behavior and "optical pore water pressure sensor and optical temperature sensor" for measuring of groundwater behavior. This tool was made for the purpose of selecting and analyzing of AE signal waveforms due to rock fracture during and after excavation of the target deep shaft. As a result of analyzing various measurement data including AE signal waveforms, it is able to understand the information on short-term or long-term progress of cracks in and around EDZ during and after excavation in the deep shaft. In the future, it will be possible to carry out a study that contributes to the long-term stability evaluation of EDZ in sedimentary rocks in the deep part of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory by evaluation based on these analytical data.