Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(5), p.051501_1 - 051501_10, 2020/10
Structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is essential for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. For RPVs in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the assessment should be performed by considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events. To assess the structural integrity of an RPV, a traditional method is usually employed by comparing fracture toughness of the RPV material with the stress intensity factor () of a crack postulated near the RPV inner surface. When an underclad crack (i.e., a crack beneath the cladding of an RPV) is postulated, of this crack can be increased owing to the plasticity effect of cladding. This is because the yield stress of cladding is lower than that of base metal and the cladding may yield earlier than base metal. In this paper, detailed three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEAs) were performed in consideration of the plasticity effect of cladding for underclad cracks postulated in Japanese RPVs. Based on the 3D FEA results, a plasticity correction method was proposed on calculations of underclad cracks. In addition, the effects of RPV geometries and loading conditions were investigated using the proposed plasticity correction method. Moreover, the applicability of the proposed method to the case which considers the hardening effect of materials after neutron irradiation was also investigated. All of these results indicate that the proposed plasticity correction method can be used for calculations of underclad cracks and is applicable to structural integrity assessment of Japanese RPVs containing underclad cracks.
Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.; 宮本 裕平*; 廣田 貴俊*; 板橋 遊*; 永井 政貴*; 鈴木 雅秀*; 関東 康祐*
Mechanical Engineering Journal (Internet), 7(3), p.19-00573_1 - 19-00573_14, 2020/06
Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is considered a promising methodology in assessing the integrity of structural components in nuclear power plants because it can rationally represent the influence parameters in their probabilistic distributions without over-conservativeness. In Japan, Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a PFM analysis code PASCAL4 (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWRs Version 4) which enables the probabilistic integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock events. Several efforts have been made to verify PASCAL4 to ensure that this code can provide reliable analysis results. In particular, a Japanese working group, which consists of different participants from the industry and from universities and institutes, has been established to conduct the verification studies. This paper summarizes verification activities of the working group in the past two years. Based on those verification activities, the reliability and applicability of PASCAL4 for structural integrity assessments of Japanese RPVs have been confirmed with great confidence.
Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(2), p.021208_1 - 021208_11, 2020/04
In Japan, a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL was developed for structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events. By reflecting the latest knowledge and findings, the evaluation functions are continuously improved and have been incorporated into PASCAL4 which is the most recent version of the PASCAL code. In this paper, the improvements made in PASCAL4 are explained in detail, such as the evaluation model of warm prestressing (WPS) effect, evaluation function of confidence levels for PFM analysis results by considering the epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in probabilistic variables, the recent stress intensity factor (KI) solutions, and improved methods for KI calculations when considering complicated stress distributions. Moreover, using PASCAL4, PFM analysis examples considering these improvements are presented.
Lokotko, T.*; Leblond, S.*; Lee, J.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Poves, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Authelet, G.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 101(3), p.034314_1 - 034314_7, 2020/03
Xu, Z.*; Dai, G.*; Li, Y.*; Yin, Z.*; Rong, Y.*; Tian, L.*; Liu, P.*; Wang, H.*; Xing, L.*; Wei, Y.*; et al.
npj Quantum Materials (Internet), 5(1), p.11_1 - 11_7, 2020/02
We use neutron scattering to study Vanadium (hole)-doped LiFeVAs. In the undoped state, LiFeAs exhibits superconductivity at K and transverse incommensurate spin excitations similar to electron overdoped iron pnictides. Upon Vanadium doping to form LiFeV, the transverse incommensurate spin excitations in LiFeAs transform into longitudinally elongated ones in a similar fashion to that of potassium (hole)-doped BaKFeAs but with dramatically enhanced magnetic scattering and elimination of superconductivity. This is different from the suppression of the overall magnetic excitations in hole-doped BaFeAs and the enhancement of superconductivity near optimal hole doping. These results are consistent with density function theory plus dynamic mean field theory calculations, suggesting that Vanadium doping in LiFeAs may induce an enlarged effective magnetic moment with a spin crossover ground state arising from the inter-orbital scattering of itinerant electrons.
Sun, M. D.*; Liu, Z.*; Huang, T. H.*; Zhang, W. Q.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ding, B.*; Wang, J. G.*; Liu, X. Y.*; Lu, H. Y.*; Hou, D. S.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 800, p.135096_1 - 135096_5, 2020/01
Fine structure in the decay of U was observed in the fusion-evaporation reaction Re(Ar,p3n) by using fast digital pulse processing technique. Two -decay branches of U feeding the ground state and 244 keV excited state of Th were identified by establishing the decay chain UThRaRn. The -particle energy for the ground-state to ground-state transition of U was determined to be 8993(17) keV, 213 keV higher than the previous value, the half-life was updated to be 62s. Evolution of nuclear structure for =131 even- isotones from Po to U was discussed in the frameworks of nuclear mass and reduced -decay width, a weakening octupole deformation in the ground state of U relative to its lighter isotones Ra and Th was suggested.
Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.; 吉村 忍*
Proceedings of 2019 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/07
Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) methodology, which represents the influence parameters in their inherent probabilistic distributions, is deemed to be promising in the structural integrity assessment of pressure-boundary components in nuclear power plants. To strengthen the applicability of PFM methodology in Japan, Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a PFM analysis code called PASCAL4 (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWRs Version 4) which can be used to evaluate the failure frequency of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock events. PASCAL4 is expected to make a significant contribution to the probabilistic integrity assessment of Japanese RPVs. In this study, PFM analyses are performed for a Japanese model RPV using PASCAL4, and the effects of non-destructive examination and neutron fluence mitigation on failure frequency of RPV are quantitatively evaluated. From the analysis results, it is concluded that PASCAL4 is useful for the structural integrity assessment of RPVs and can enhance the applicability of PFM methodology.
勝山 仁哉; 眞崎 浩一; Lu, K.; 渡辺 正*; Li, Y.
Proceedings of 2019 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2019) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2019/07
Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.; 宮本 裕平*; 廣田 貴俊*; 板橋 遊*; 永井 政貴*; 鈴木 雅秀*; 関東 康祐*
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/05
Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is considered as a promising methodology in the integrity assessment of structural components in a nuclear power plant since it can rationally represent the influence parameters in their inherent probabilistic distributions without over-conservativeness. In Japan, a PFM analysis code called PASCAL4 (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWRs Version 4) has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which can be used for structural integrity assessments of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock events. Up till now, many efforts have been made on verifying the PASCAL4 code. Among them, a Japanese working group which is consisted of seven participants from industries, universities and institutes was established to conduct the verification studies. Based on verification activities during the past two years, the reliability and applicability of PASCAL4 for structural integrity assessments of Japanese RPVs were confirmed with great confidence. This paper summarizes the verification activities in this working group including the verification plan, analysis conditions and results.
Lu, P.-C.*; 谷田 聖; Belle Collaboration*; 他203名*
Physical Review D, 99(3), p.032003_1 - 032003_9, 2019/02
We report the study of and using a pair data sample recorded on the resonance with the Belle detector at KEKB. These include the observations of decay modes with the corresponding branching fractions () , () , () and () , where denotes the decay branching fraction and the intermediate resonance decays are excluded in the four-body decay measurements.
Elekes, Z.*; Kripk, *; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Authelet, G.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.
Physical Review C, 99(1), p.014312_1 - 014312_7, 2019/01
(,)反応によるNiの核構造の探索実験を行った。Lenzi, Nowacki, Poves, Sieja相互作用を用いた殻模型計算では実験結果を説明しうる陽子空孔状態が得られており、理論的な断面積計算は実験値とよい一致を与えた。実験で得られたすべての状態を理論的に一意に決定することはできなかったが、過去の実験結果と同様にNi同位体でのZ = 28の大きなshell gapを示す結果が得られた。
Studer, E.*; 安部 諭; Andreani, M.*; Bharj, J. S.*; Gera, B.*; Ishay, L.*; Kelm, S.*; Kim, J.*; Lu, Y.*; Paliwal, P.*; et al.
Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 16 Pages, 2018/10
Nuclear engineering research groups were interested in the phenomena of the interaction between a rising jet and a stratified layer located above in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen accumulation and dispersion in a nuclear reactor containment. Previous studies were performed with an upward jet of fluid heavier or lighter than the upper stratified layer. However, in real configurations i.e. the inner part of a nuclear containment, obstacles such as pipes, components as pumps or reservoirs and walls are present, and they can dissipate the initial momentum of the gas release. Consequently, the upward flow pattern can be considered "diffuse" and buoyant, neither pure jet nor pure plume. Therefore, this challenging issue was part of a project called HYMERES, which was launched and conducted in the OECD/NEA framework. Dedicated experiments were performed to study the interaction between a diffuse buoyant jet and two-layer stratification. In the large-scale MISTRA facility, the HM1-1 test series were conducted in which the erosive flow pattern came from a horizontal hot air jet impinging on a vertical cylinder. These experimental results were offered for a blind and open benchmark exercise.
Lu, K.; 眞崎 浩一; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.
Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 8 Pages, 2018/07
In Japan, a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency for structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The most recent release is PASCAL Version 4 (hereafter, PSACAL4) which can be used to evaluate the failure frequency of RPVs considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock events. For the integrity assessment of RPVs, development of crack evaluation models is important. In this study, finite element analyses are performed firstly to verify the stress intensity factor calculations of cracks in PASCAL4. In addition, the applicability of the crack evaluation models in PASCAL4 such as the location of embedded cracks, crack shape and depth of surface cracks, and the increment of crack propagation is investigated. Based on sensitivity analyses of crack evaluation models for Japanese RPVs using PASCAL4, the effects of these evaluation models on failure frequency are clarified. From the analysis results, crack evaluation models recommended to the failure frequency evaluation for a Japanese model RPV are discussed.
Lu, K.; 眞崎 浩一; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.; 宇野 隼平*
Proceedings of 2018 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2018), 10 Pages, 2018/07
In Japan, Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed a PFM analysis code PASCAL (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWRs) for structural integrity assessment of Japanese reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) considering neutron irradiation embrittlement and pressurized thermal shock transients. By reflecting the latest knowledge and findings, the PASCAL code has been continuously improved. In this paper, the development of PASCAL Version 4 (hereafter, PASCAL4) is described. Several analysis functions incorporated into PASCAL4 for evaluating the failure frequency of RPVs are introduced, for example, the evaluation function of confidence level of failure frequency considering epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in probabilistic variables, the recent stress intensity factor (KI) solutions and KI calculation methods considering complicated stress distributions, and the recent Japanese irradiation embrittlement prediction method. Finally, using PASCAL4, a PFM analysis example for a Japanese model RPV is presented.
Lu, K.; 真野 晃宏; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.; 岩松 史則*
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 140(3), p.031201_1 - 031201_11, 2018/06
The stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions for subsurface flaws near the free surfaces of components, which are known to be important in engineering applications, have not been provided yet. Thus, in this paper, SIF solutions for subsurface flaws near the free surfaces in flat plates were numerically investigated based on finite element analyses. The flaws with aspect ratios a/l = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, the normalized ratios a/d = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8, and d/t = 0.01 and 0.10 were taken into account, where a is the half flaw depth, l is the flaw length, d is the distance from the center of the subsurface flaw to the nearest free surface and t is the wall thickness. Fourth-order polynomial stress distribution in the thickness direction was considered. In addition, the developed SIF solutions were incorporated into a Japanese probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) code, and PFM analyses were performed for a Japanese reactor pressure vessel containing a subsurface flaw near the inner surface. The PFM analysis results indicate that the obtained SIF solutions are effective in engineering applications.
Lu, K.; 宮本 裕平*; 真野 晃宏; 勝山 仁哉; Li, Y.
Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2017 (ASRAM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/11
Shand, C. M.*; Podolyk, Zs.*; Grska, M.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; Otsuka, T.*; Sieja, K.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Tsunoda, T.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 773, p.492 - 497, 2017/10
Low-lying states in neutron-rich Zn nuclei were measured for the first time via in-beam -ray spectroscopy at RIKEN. These include the 4 to 2 in Zn and the 2 to 0 and 4 to 2 in Zn. The reduced E() energies and increased E(4)/E(2) ratios at =52,54 compared to Zn attest that the magicity is confined just on the neutron number =50 only. The levels observed in Zn suggest the onset of deformation towards heavier Zn isotopes. The data were compared to state-of-the-art shell model calculations.
Lu, K.; 勝山 仁哉; 宇野 隼平; Li, Y.
Proceedings of 2017 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2017) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/07
Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency for structural integrity assessments of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) by considering the inherent probabilistic distributions of various influence factors. For practical applications, several evaluation models are improved, and have been implemented into the current PASCAL code. In this paper, the improvements of PASCAL are introduced firstly, such as the evaluation method for underclad cracks, treatments of the complicated welding residual stress distribution, and evaluation models for the warm pre-stressing effect. In addition, the effects of these improvements on failure probability or failure frequency of RPVs are investigated by performing PFM analyses for domestic RPVs using PASCAL. From the analysis results, the effects of the improved evaluation models are discussed.
Vaquero, V.*; Jungclaus, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Wimmer, K.*; Gargano, A.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Chen, S.*; Ncher, E.*; Sahin, E.*; 志賀 慶明*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 118(20), p.202502_1 - 202502_5, 2017/05
Excited states in Sn were populated following one-neutron knockout reaction from an unstable Sn beam at the RIBF laboratory in RIKEN. In addition to the already known rays, additional strength was observed for the first time in the excitation-energy range 3.5-5.5 MeV. Since the neutron separation energy of Sn is low, this observation provides direct evidence for the radioactive decay of neutron-unbound states in this nucleus. The ability of decay to compete with neutron emission was attributed to a mismatch between the wave functions of the initial and final states in the neutron emission case. These findings suggest that in the region south-east of Sn, nuclear structure effects play a significant role in the decay of unbound states, which are instead usually ignored in the evaluation of neutron-emission probabilities in astrophysical simulations.
Lu, K.; Li, Y.; 長谷川 邦夫*; Lacroix, V.*
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 139(2), p.021407_1 - 021407_6, 2017/04
When multiple flaws are detected in structural components, remaining lives of the components are estimated by fatigue flaw growth calculations using combination rules in fitness-for-service (FFS) codes. A lot of FFS codes provide combination rules for multiple flaws, however, these combination rules are significantly different among the various FFS codes. Fatigue flaw growth for two similar adjacent surface flaws in a pipe subjected to cyclic tensile stress were obtained by numerical calculations using these different combination rules. In addition, fatigue lives taking into account interaction effect between the two similar flaws were conducted by extended finite element method (X-FEM). As the calculation results, it is found that the fatigue lives calculated by the X-FEM are close to those by the ASME Code. Finally, it is worth noticing that the combination rule provided by the ASME Code is appropriate for fatigue flaw growth calculations.