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Journal Articles

Preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological emergency as a designated public corporation

Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ebine, Noriya; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 15 Pages, 2019/05

In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a designated public corporation assigned in the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act of Japan undertakes a role to support the national government and local governments. This paper (1) illuminates the roles of the JAEA as a designated public corporation for preparedness and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency of nuclear facilities; (2) summarizes emergency response activities of the JAEA in accordance with its Disaster Management Operation Plan against the off-site radiological emergencies attributed to a loss of control of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that occurred in 2011; and (3) reports its activities in normal times especially participation in the drills organized by the national government and local governments in the light of the Basic Disaster Management Plan of Japan and Local Disaster Management Plans of prefectural governments, respectively.

JAEA Reports

A Guide to introducing burnup credit, preliminary version (English translation)

Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu*

JAEA-Review 2017-010, 93 Pages, 2017/06

JAEA-Review-2017-010.pdf:2.47MB

There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee.

Journal Articles

Calculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a package containing spent nuclear fuels

Watanabe, Fumitaka; Okuno, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 18th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials (PATRAM 2016) (DVD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2016/09

This paper shows our calculations on the effects of a radiological release by assuming a severe accident in nuclear material transportation. Following recalculations of safe distance from the point of a severe accident during transportation of a transportation cask TN12 typically used in France containing spent nuclear fuel, and calculations to replicate the "Regulatory Guide: Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities", a similar calculation was made for a spent fuel transportation cask NFT-14P that was typically utilized in Japan instead of TN12. The safe distance was calculated to be about 30 m. The above calculations were made with the HotSpot codes which adopted the Gauss plume model and had been developed by the USA. Some additional calculations were made with EyesAct, which was developed and used in Japan, adopting also the Gauss plume model, to compare calculation results.

Journal Articles

Nuclear criticality safety standard for a fuel reprocessing plant assuming burnup credit published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan

Nakajima, Ken*; Itahara, Kuniyuki*; Okuno, Hiroshi

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2015) (DVD-ROM), p.496 - 502, 2015/09

An outline of the standard "Procedures for Applying Burnup Credit to Criticality Safety Control of a Reprocessing Facility: 2014" (AESJ-SC-F025: 2014) published in April 2015 by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) is presented. The AESJ published more than 60 Standards. However, many of them were in the field of nuclear power reactors or radioactive wastes. Ten years ago the AESJ published "Basic Items of Criticality Safety Control: 2004" (AESJ-SC-F004:2004), which prescribed basic ideas, requirements and methods on nuclear criticality safety controls of facilities handling with nuclear fuel materials in general for preventing a nuclear criticality accident. However, it did not include any specific procedures for adopting burnup credit. Therefore, a new standard was envisaged as the first Standard for fuel reprocessing plants, which clarified the specific procedures to apply burnup credit to designers, operators, maintenance persons and administrators.

Journal Articles

Fabrication process qualification of TF Insert Coil using real ITER TF conductor

Ozeki, Hidemasa; Isono, Takaaki; Kawano, Katsumi; Saito, Toru; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Nishino, Katsumi; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kido, Shuichi*; Semba, Tomoyuki*; Suzuki, Yozo*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 25(3), p.4200804_1 - 4200804_4, 2015/06

 Percentile:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Journal Articles

Activation, Radiation shielding materials

Sukegawa, Atsuhiko; Iida, Hiromasa*; Itoga, Toshio*; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Konno, Chikara; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi*; Ban, Shuichi*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

Hoshasen Shahei Handobukku; Kisohen, p.299 - 356, 2015/03

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014

Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Aoki, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Kume, Nobuhide; Nakanishi, Chika; Koie, Masahiro; Kawamata, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Review 2014-048, 69 Pages, 2015/02

JAEA-Review-2014-048.pdf:13.91MB

JAEA was assigned as a designated public institution under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situations Response Act. Based on these Acts, the JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the national government and/or local governments in case of disaster responses or response in the event of a military attack, etc. In order to fulfill the tasks, the JAEA has established the Emergency Action Plan and the Civil Protection Action Plan. In case of a nuclear emergency, NEAT dispatches specialists of JAEA, supplies the national government and local governments with emergency equipment and materials, and gives technical advice and information. In normal time, NEAT provides various exercises and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response institutions of the national and local governments, police, fire fighters, self-defense forces, etc. in addition to the JAEA itself. The NEAT also researches nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and cooperates with international organizations. In the FY2013, the NEAT accomplished the following tasks: (1) Technical support activities as a designated public institution in cooperation with the national and local governments, etc. (2) Human resource development, exercise and training of nuclear emergency response personnel for the national and local governments, etc. (3) Researches on nuclear disaster preparedness and response, and sending useful information (4) International contributions to Asian countries on nuclear disaster preparedness and response in collaboration with the international organizations

Journal Articles

Homogeneity tests on neutron shield concrete

Okuno, Koichi*; Iikura, Hiroshi

Nuclear Science and Techniques, 25(S1), p.S010604_1 - S010604_5, 2014/12

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2013

Sato, Takeshi; Muto, Shigeo; Okuno, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Hiromi; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Okamoto, Akiko; Koie, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takeshi; Nemotochi, Toshimasa; Saito, Toru; et al.

JAEA-Review 2013-046, 65 Pages, 2014/02

JAEA-Review-2013-046.pdf:11.18MB

When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility of providing technical support to the National government, local governments, police, fire stations and nuclear operators etc., because the JAEA has been designated as the Designated Public Institution under the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures and the Act on Response to Armed Attack Situations, etc.. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA provides a comprehensive range of technical support activities to an Off-Site Center in case of a nuclear emergency. Specifically, NEAT gives technical advice and information, dispatches specialists as required, and supplies the National Government and local governments with emergency equipments and materials. NEAT provides various exercise and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention to those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal times. The tasks of NEAT, with its past experiences as a designated public institution including the responses to TEPCO's Fukushima Accident, have been shifted to technical supports to the national government for strengthening its abilities to emergency responses; the NEAT therefore focused on maintenance and operation of its functions, and strengthening its response abilities in cooperation with the national government. This annual report summarized these activities of JAEA/NEAT in the fiscal year 2012.

JAEA Reports

The Establishment of the framework and actual experience for the prediction of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides against the nuclear test by North Korea

Nakanishi, Chika; Sato, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kakefuda, Toyokazu; Katata, Genki; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2013-030, 105 Pages, 2013/10

JAEA-Technology-2013-030.pdf:29.0MB

North Korea carried out the third nuclear test in February 2013. Due to the request of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) and Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate (NSED) of JAEA predicted the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide by WSPEEDI-II for the purpose of contributing to the environmental monitoring plan. From February 12 to 22, they provided daily reports on the prediction to the MEXT and the Ministry of Defense. MEXT has published these reports on the website. Since April 2012, NEAT and NSED had prepared to predict by the framework for the prediction around the clock during 10months until February 2013. This report described this experience and pointed issues out on this system.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2011 - March 31, 2012

Katagiri, Hiromi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Takeshi; Tamura, Kenichi; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Chika; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Abe, Minako; Sato, Sohei; et al.

JAEA-Review 2012-033, 70 Pages, 2012/08

JAEA-Review-2012-033.pdf:6.38MB

When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, JAEA has the responsibility of providing technical support to the National government, local governments, etc., by the Basic Law on Emergency Preparedness and the Basic Plan for Disaster Countermeasures. NEAT of JAEA gives technical advice and information, dispatch specialists as required, supplies with the National Government and local governments emergency equipment and materials. NEAT provides various lectures and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention for emergency response organizations at normal time. Concerning the assistance to the Accident of Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March, 2011, JAEA assisted activities including environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting etc., with its the utmost effort. This annual report summarized these activities of NEAT in the fiscal year 2011.

Journal Articles

Production of criticality safety standard data with Monte-Carlo code MVP / nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 validated using ICSBE data

Tonoike, Kotaro; Suyama, Kenya; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Gunzo

Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2012/02

The 1st version of criticality safety handbook of Japan was published in 1988. A criticality safety analysis code system JACS was validated, and minimum critical mass and safety limit mass of various fissile materials were calculated. During more than two decades since then, new critical experimental data were taken in the Static Critical Experiment Facility (STACY), and more precise benchmark data of wider range of fissile materials were accumulated by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP). Computational capability has greatly grown, and new codes and nuclear data have been developed. The 2nd version of the handbook utilizes the results of validation of the criticality analysis method with a continuous energy Monte-Carlo code MVP and a nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 using the benchmark data chosen from the ICSBEP handbook. Results of the benchmark calculation were statistically studied, from which the safety limit value of multiplication factor was derived as 0.98. Based on the conclusion, minimum critical mass and safety limit mass were calculated. Future plan of research activities on the criticality safety in JAEA will be also overviewed.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011

Katagiri, Hiromi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Sawahata, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Terakado, Naoya; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Chika; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuya; et al.

JAEA-Review 2011-037, 66 Pages, 2011/12

JAEA-Review-2011-037.pdf:4.52MB

When a Nuclear emergency occurs, Nuclear Emergency Assistance & Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA gives technical advice and information, dispatch specialists as required, supplies emergency equipment and materials to the National Government and local governments. NEAT provides various lectures and training courses concerning nuclear disaster prevention for those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal time. NEAT also researches on nuclear disaster prevention and cooperates with international organizations. Concerning about the assistance to the Accident of Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake at 11 March, 2011, JAEA assisted activities including environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting etc., with its full scale effort. NEAT served as the center of these supporting activities of JAEA.

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center; April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010

Kanamori, Masashi; Shirakawa, Yusuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Terakado, Naoya; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro; et al.

JAEA-Review 2010-037, 60 Pages, 2010/09

JAEA-Review-2010-037.pdf:3.11MB

When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) provides technical support to the National government, local governments, police, fire station and license holder etc. They are designated public organizations conforming to the basic law on emergency preparedness and the basic plan for disaster countermeasures. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance & Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA provides a comprehensive range of technical support activities to an off-site center in case of a nuclear emergency. Specifically, NEAT gives technical advice and information, provides for the dispatch of specialist as required, supplies emergency equipments and materials to the national government and municipal office. NEAT provide various lectures and training course concerning nuclear disaster prevention for those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal time. And NEAT researches on nuclear disaster prevention and also cooperate with international organizations. This annual report summarized the activities of JAEA/NEAT in the fiscal year 2009.

Journal Articles

Calculation of critical concentrations of actinides in an infinite medium of silicon dioxide

Okuno, Hiroshi; Sato, Shohei; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 46(12), p.1137 - 1144, 2009/12

The critical concentrations of metal-SiO$$_{2}$$ and -H$$_{2}$$O mixtures were calculated for 26 actinides including $$^{233, 235}$$U, $$^{239, 241}$$Pu, $$^{242m}$$Am, $$^{243, 245, 247}$$Cm and $$^{249, 251}$$Cf, where the critical concentration was defined as the concentration that the infinite neutron multiplication factor, k$$infty$$ being calculated to be 1.0. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo neutron transport calculation code MCNP5 combined with the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL3.3. The results showed that the critical actinide concentration of metal-SiO$$_{2}$$ was ca. 1/5 of that of metal-H$$_{2}$$O for all the fissile nuclides investigated. The k$$infty$$'s of the metal-SiO$$_{2}$$ and metal-H$$_{2}$$O at a half of the respective critical actinide concentration, which concentration was assumed as the subcritical actinide concentration limit, were found to be less than 0.8 for all the actinides considered. Applying a sum-of-fractions rule with respect to the ratios of actinide concentration to the subcritical actinide concentration limit for six fissile nuclides, subcriticality of high-level radioactive wastes was confirmed for a reported sample. The effect of different nuclear data libraries on the results of critical actinide concentrations was found large for $$^{242}$$Cm, $$^{247}$$Cm and $$^{250}$$Cf.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of the estimated criticality lower limit multiplication factor of MOX fuel systems based on the evaluation of calculation errors dependent on plutonium-240 isotopic fraction

Sato, Shohei; Okuno, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2009-014, 19 Pages, 2009/11

JAEA-Data-Code-2009-014.pdf:3.03MB

The estimated criticality lower limit multiplication factor (hereafter, ECLLMF) is the upper limit of the neutron multiplication factor where the system may be judged subcritical through the calculation results of the same criticality calculation system applied to analogous fuel systems to be evaluated. Aiming to establish an effective method to find the rational ECLLMF of mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel systems, this report investigated the classification of the critical experiments for the statistical processing, and evaluated the calculation errors with considering the dependence on $$^{240}$$Pu isotopic fraction within the classified experiments. In this evaluation, the criticality calculation code MVP and the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.3 library were utilized, and the criticality experiments with MOX fuels registered in the international criticality safety benchmark evaluation project (ICSBEP) handbook were adopted. It was found that the dependency of the benchmark calculation results on the $$^{240}$$Pu isotopic fraction was enhanced by introducing a new fuel class: "dual heterogeneous fuel systems." As a result of this classification and error evaluation, it was confirmed that the calculated values of all the ECLLMFs were below the benchmark calculation results, and that the value of the ECLLMF was high compared with that obtained with the traditional method.

JAEA Reports

Second version of data collection part of nuclear criticality safety handbook (Contract research)

Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamane, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Gunzo

JAEA-Data/Code 2009-010, 175 Pages, 2009/08

JAEA-Data-Code-2009-010.pdf:13.1MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2009-010(errata).pdf:0.11MB

The report revised the Data Collection part of Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, which was published in 1988. This second version provided criticality data on homogeneous U-H$$_{2}$$O and UF$$_{6}$$-HF, which were not cited in the previous version, and increased those data on the medium-enriched uranium fuels. Calculations were performed mainly with the Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Criticality Calculation Code, MVP, and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3 Revision 2, JENDL-3.2, both of which were developed at the late Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Data on atomic number densities of actinide metal and oxide were additionally supplied, and nuclide compositions of irradiated fuels were improved from the first version. One million histories of neutrons were followed in benchmark calculations of critical experiments and in calculations of single-unit criticality data, i.e., critical mass, volume, dimensions, etc., to attain almost ten times higher precision than the first version.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of the kinetic parameters for homogeneous fuel systems (MOX powder with zinc stearate and plutonium nitrate solution)

Sato, Shohei; Okuno, Hiroshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2009-006, 43 Pages, 2009/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2009-006.pdf:6.53MB

This report represents the kinetic parameters for homogeneous fuel systems obtained in the cooperative study with the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) in France. The subject fuels for calculation are MOX powder mixed with zinc stearate and plutonium nitrate solution. The TWODANT code is utilized with 17 energy groups JENDL3.3 cross section collapsed by SRAC. As a result of the calculations, it was found that (1) The kinetic parameters of MOX powder is dependent on plutonium enrichment and the fraction of hydrogen, and is not dependent on the density of MOX powder and the fuel height except for the neutron lifetime, despite the kind of fuel system, (2) The kinetic parameters of plutonium nitrate solution depend on the concentration of plutonium; the temperature coefficient of which plutonium concentration is below 19g/l is positive.

JAEA Reports

SWAT3.1; The Integrated burnup code system driving continuous energy Monte Carlo codes MVP and MCNP

Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki*; Takada, Tomoyuki*; Ryufuku, Susumu*; Okuno, Hiroshi; Murazaki, Minoru; Okubo, Kiyoshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2009-002, 124 Pages, 2009/05

JAEA-Data-Code-2009-002.pdf:14.09MB

Integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT is a system that combines neutronics calculation code SRAC widely used in Japan and point burnup calculation code ORIGEN2. It has been used to evaluate the composition of the uranium, plutonium, minor actinide and the fission products in the spent nuclear fuel. Because of the ability to treat the arbitrary fuel geometry and no requirement of generating the effective cross section data, there is a great advantage to introduce continuous energy Monte Carlo Code into the burnup calculation code. Based on this idea, the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT3.1 was developed by combining the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP and MCNP and ORIGEN2. This report describes the outline, input data instruction and several example of the calculation.

Journal Articles

Fluctuation of the neutron multiplication factor induced by an oscillation of the fuel solution system

Sato, Shohei; Okuno, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Gunzo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 46(3), p.268 - 277, 2009/03

This paper intends to figure out reactivity of the fuel solution system with a free surface. To fulfill this intension, criticality calculation with reflecting fluid calculation results have been carried out. For fluid calculation, the finite volume method and the VOF method are applied to track the free surface caused by an oscillation. For criticality calculation, we have applied the continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation method. As a result, three fluctuation types of $$k$$$$_{eff}$$ have been obtained depending on the oscillation frequency and the ratio of the solution height to the width of tank (H/L). If a sloshing motion is generated, $$k$$$$_{eff}$$fluctuates by a wide range and has a threshold, which can classify the fluctuation type of $$k$$$$_{eff}$$, despite the kind of the reflector. If H/L is above the threshold, ${it i.e.,}$ H/L=0.35, it fluctuates below the value of the static condition. The threshold value represented in this paper is smaller than that of the conventional one.

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