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論文

Development of embedded Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide structures in polydimethylsiloxane thin films by proton beam writing

加田 渉*; 三浦 健太*; 加藤 聖*; 猿谷 良太*; 久保田 篤志*; 佐藤 隆博; 江夏 昌志; 石井 保行; 神谷 富裕; 西川 宏之*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 348, p.218 - 222, 2015/04

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:32.81(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The Mach-Zehnder (MZ) optical structures were previously fabricated in a Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) thin film by Proton Beam Writing (PBW). The enhancement of optical transmittance in the structures is, however, required for industrial use. In this study, the MZ optical waveguides have been fabricated in a poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) thin film which has the higher optical permeability. The PDMS films were spin-coated on a silicon wafer (40 $$times$$ 20 $$times$$ 0.5 mm$$^3$$) with a thickness of approximately 30 $$mu$$m. The MZ waveguides were drawn by a 750 keV proton microbeam of 1$$mu$$m in diameter having the penetration depth of 18 $$mu$$m with fluence of 40-100 nC/mm$$^2$$. The beam writing was carried out combining an electric scanner and a mechanical sample-stage. The observation of the single-mode light propagation of 1.55 $$mu$$m fiber-laser in the MZ waveguides indicated that the optical transmittance have been successfully enhanced using PDMS.

論文

Assessment of residual stress due to overlay-welded cladding and structural integrity of a reactor pressure vessel

勝山 仁哉; 西川 弘之*; 宇田川 誠; 中村 光行*; 鬼沢 邦雄

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 135(5), p.051402_1 - 051402_9, 2013/10

 被引用回数:15 パーセンタイル:28.57(Engineering, Mechanical)

圧力容器(RPV)の肉盛溶接部と母材部における溶接後及び溶接熱処理(PWHT)後の残留応力分布を、相変態を考慮した熱弾塑性クリープ解析を用いて評価を行った。解析結果と実測値の比較から、肉盛溶接部及び母材部内の残留応力分布の解析結果は実測値とよく一致することを見いだし、すなわち残留応力解析の精度向上のためには溶接中の相変態を考慮することが重要であることがわかった。また、求められた残留応力分布を用いて、加圧熱衝撃時のRPVに対する破壊力学解析を行い、残留応力がRPVに及ぼす影響について評価した。その結果、RPVの健全性を行う場合には、肉盛溶接とPWHTにより生じる残留応力を考慮することが重要であることを明らかにした。

論文

現行の原子炉圧力容器の健全性評価手法に対するPASCAL3を用いた破壊力学評価

西川 弘之*; 眞崎 浩一*; 勝山 仁哉; 鬼沢 邦雄

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 12(3), p.211 - 221, 2013/09

日本原子力研究開発機構では、加圧熱衝撃(PTS)時の原子炉圧力容器(RPVs)の構造健全性評価の実施及びその評価に関する規程や標準の検証に資するために確率論的破壊力学解析コードPASCAL3を開発した。PASCAL3の前バージョンであるPASCAL2は、内部欠陥の評価、PTSの過渡事象データベース、非破壊検査モデルを含む多くの機能を備えているが、PASCAL3では、原子炉圧力容器の内面に施したクラッドを考慮できるように改良を加えた。今回、PASCAL3の解析における標準条件を決定するために、PASCAL3を用いて、表面き裂の発生と進展に関するモデルの影響について評価を行った。また、現状のRPVの構造健全性評価方法に従って、決定論的な評価と確率論的な評価を実施した。その結果、WPS効果を考慮することで、考慮しない場合に比べて条件付き裂貫通確率が10分の1程度まで減少することが示された。

論文

Electroplating of Ni microstructures on the cross section of Cu wire using PMMA mother fabricated by proton beam writing

田邊 祐介*; 岩本 隆志*; 高橋 潤一*; 西川 宏之*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 神谷 富裕

JAEA-Review 2012-046, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2011, P. 129, 2013/01

In this study, the Ni microstructures were attempted to be fabricated on a distal surface of Cu wires with a diameter of 1.0 mm aiming at the use for imprint lithography. Firstly a PMMA master block was fabricated on the distal surface by exposing PB with beam size of 1.1 $$mu$$m at 3.0 MeV and developing it by IPA-water for electroplating. The master block was composed of the 4-$$mu$$m wide lines with pitches of 25 $$mu$$m and depths of 20 $$mu$$m. Secondly the electroplating was performed on the PMMA master block using a nickel sulfamate bath. Thirdly the electroplated Ni surface was mechanically polished easily to remove PMMA by smoothing its surface. Finally, the Ni microstructures with 20.5 $$mu$$m were fabricated by removing the PMMA after polishing. We additionally performed UV imprint lithography of the photosensitive polymer using the Ni microstructures as a mold. The observation result of SEM images of Ni microstructures and UV imprinted grooves showed that their imprinted grooves were successfully transferred by way of the Ni microstructures from the PMMA master block using the combination of the electroplating and imprinting.

論文

Visualization of focused proton beam dose distribution by atomic force microscopy using blended polymer films based on polyacrylic acid

大道 正明*; 高野 勝昌*; 佐藤 隆博; 神谷 富裕; 石井 保行; 大久保 猛; 江夏 昌志; 加田 渉; 杉本 雅樹; 西川 宏之*; et al.

Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 12, p.7401 - 7404, 2012/09

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:85.57(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

A new visualization method for dose distribution of a focused proton beam in sub-micrometer scale was developed using a formation of a bulky cross-linked structure of polyacrylic acid -$$N$$, $$N$$'-methylence bisacrylamide, blend film. The areas irradiated by the focused proton beam were swelled on the film. The height of the swelling was significantly increased according to the beam fluence and the increase of containing ratio of the methylence bisacrylamide. The height was saturated at the fluence of 5$$times$$10$$^5$$ ions/$$mu$$m$$^{2}$$. The proton beam-sensitive polymer film was used for the analysis of dose distribution on its surface. The irradiated surface was observed by employing an atomic force microscope. This observation result showed that the method could be used to confirm the writing patterns and the beam-spot shape. Nanostructures with a crescent shape are visualized clearly at a misaligned beam-spot shape in the set up of the beam-optics.

論文

Microprocessing of arched bridge structures with epoxy resin by proton beam writing

高野 勝昌*; 麻野 敦資*; 前吉 雄太*; 丸井 裕美*; 大道 正明*; 佐伯 昭紀*; 関 修平*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 神谷 富裕; et al.

Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 25(1), p.43 - 46, 2012/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:90.55(Polymer Science)

The proton beam writing (PBW) with energy of several MeV ranges is a unique tool of three-dimensional microprocessing for a polymer material. Three-dimensional structures like a bridge structure can be fabricated by the double exposures of PBW with two deferent energies followed by the one-time development using etching solution. In this study, the fabrication of an arched bridge was attempted by means of the supercritical drying with liquid carbon dioxide to a SU-8 photoresist film, as the polymer material, coated on a substrate of epoxy sheet, after the PBW process. In the exposures, two patterns of bridge girders and piers were written with 0.5 and 3 MeV proton beams to the SU-8 photoresist films, respectively. After these writings, the photoresist films were developed with the solution of diacetone alcohol and rinsed with the solution of isopropyl alcohol. Then the supercritical drying with liquid carbon dioxide was used at 12 MPa, 40$$^{circ}$$C. As the results, the bridge structures with curved girders to the vertical direction were formed due to the swelling effect of the photoresist film on the drying. In the conference, the microprocessing method of the bridge structure and the swelling effect of the photoresist film will be represented in detail.

論文

高経年化技術評価の高度化; 原子炉圧力容器の健全性評価

鬼沢 邦雄; 眞崎 浩一; 小坂部 和也*; 西川 弘之*; 勝山 仁哉; 西山 裕孝

日本保全学会第9回学術講演会要旨集, p.374 - 379, 2012/07

高経年化技術評価にかかわる安全規制の対象として、原子炉圧力容器の健全性は非常に重要である。この健全性評価に関する規制基準の高度化のため、原子炉圧力容器に対する現行の健全性評価法に関して、現行の炉心領域部に対する照射脆化を対象とした健全性評価法の技術的根拠の再確認、及び確率論的解析技術の導入に向けた検討、並びに炉心領域部以外の健全性評価法に関する技術的課題の整理を目的とした調査研究を、原子力安全・保安院のプロジェクトとして進めている。本発表では、これまでの調査研究から得られた日米の評価法の相違等の分析結果と今後の計画を述べる。

論文

Fabrication of concave and convex structure array consisted of epoxy long-nanowires by light and heavy ion beams lithography

高野 勝昌*; 杉本 雅樹; 麻野 敦資*; 前吉 雄太*; 丸井 裕美*; 大道 正明*; 佐伯 昭紀*; 関 修平*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; et al.

Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, 37(2), p.237 - 240, 2012/06

A three dimensional microfabrication technique for polymer films has been investigated on the basis of fabricating micrometer structures composed of the fine wire structures which were fabricated by the chemical reaction induced along ion tracks of heavy ions with the energy of hundred MeV. In this study, we propose a new hemispherical microfabrication technique of epoxy resin for the fabrication of optical lenses using two times irradiation technique combining proton beam writing and low fluence irradiation of heavy ion beam. At first, an epoxy resin films composed of an etching and a non-etching layers of epoxy resin were irradiated at a frame pattern using a 3 MeV focused proton beam. At second, the low fluence irradiation of 450 MeV $$^{129}$$Xe$$^{23+}$$ was performed by a raster line scanning with oblique angle of 45 degree. Finally, the non-irradiated area of the etching layer of the films were etched by the developer. The observation of the etched films showed that the dome-like structures arrayed with a grid were formed on the non-etching layer of the epoxy resin films. The more detailed observation showed that each dome was composed of the fine wire structures formed by cross-linking reactions induced along the $$^{129}$$Xe$$^{23+}$$ tracks. The domes are expected to function as optical condenser-lenses.

論文

Fabrication of poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene)-based nano- and microstructures by proton beam writing

前吉 雄太*; 高野 勝昌*; 麻野 敦資*; 丸井 裕美*; 大道 正明*; 佐藤 隆博; 神谷 富裕; 石井 保行; 大久保 猛; 江夏 昌志; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(4), p.045201_1 - 045201_4, 2012/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:94.17(Physics, Applied)

A relation between the fluence and the beam-induced chemical reaction in poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene), PFO, films has been investigated to fabricate PFO-based nano-micro structures using Proton Beam Writing, PBW. In this investigation, we observed that the cross-linking reaction in PFO occurred without a cross-linking agent using PBW. Furthermore, not only the surface morphology but also structure and shape on PFO films were changed from nano-meter to micro-meter size by controlling the fluence of proton beam irradiation on the basis of the investigation. Consequently, the structure of the arabic numbers was successful fabricated as three-dimensional PFO structures with the aspect ratio of 12 at the fluence of 3.5 $$times$$ 10$$^6$$ ions/$$mu$$m$$^2$$ by PBW.

論文

肉盛溶接クラッド部に着目した原子炉圧力容器の構造健全性評価

西川 弘之*; 小坂部 和也*; 後藤 伸寿*; 鈴木 広一*; 勝山 仁哉; 鬼沢 邦雄

みずほ情報総研技報(インターネット), 4(1), 5 Pages, 2012/03

原子炉圧力容器の内表面には、耐食性向上のため厚さ5mm程度のステンレス鋼のクラッドが肉盛溶接されている。肉盛溶接により、容器内表面近傍には降伏応力に近い引張の溶接残留応力が生じる。しかし、現行の健全性評価に関する規程には、クラッドに関する記述がなされていない。このため、クラッドの残留応力が原子炉圧力容器の構造健全性に影響を評価した。すなわち、加圧熱衝撃時における原子炉圧力容器の健全性を適切に確認するため、クラッドの肉盛溶接を考慮したうえで溶接残留応力を把握し、健全性に及ぼす影響を定量的に評価した。本稿では、有限要素法による原子炉圧力容器内面クラッドの溶接残留応力解析手法及び仮想欠陥を考慮した破壊力学解析手法を紹介する。

論文

3D micro-fabrication utilized superimposing technique with focused MeV ion beams

高野 勝昌*; 佐藤 隆博; 神谷 富裕; 石井 保行; 大久保 猛; 江夏 昌志; 加田 渉; 杉本 雅樹; 関 修平*; 西川 宏之*

JAEA-Review 2011-043, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2010, P. 162, 2012/01

A unique micro-processing technique for epoxy resin films has been developed at the TIARA, utilizing the ion beam writing with multiple energies of light and heavy ion beams. In this study, nano-wire structure fabrication was tried by a superimposing with the proton beams and 520 MeV $$^{40}$$Ar$$^{14+}$$. And in order to reduce the surface tension in developing and drying processes, after a baking at 95 $$^{circ}$$C for 1 minute, developing and drying was performed with super-critical CO$$_{2}$$ at 12 MPa, 40 $$^{circ}$$C. As the result, the bridge structure which strung the wires fabricated by 520 MeV $$^{40}$$Ar$$^{14+}$$ hitting can be observed at the aimed points.

論文

Electroforming of Ni mold using high-aspect-ratio PMMA microstructures fabricated by proton beam writing

田邊 祐介*; 西川 宏之*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 神谷 富裕

JAEA-Review 2011-043, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2010, P. 163, 2012/01

We report on Ni electroforming using high-aspect-ratio PMMA microstructures by Proton Beam Writing (PBW). There are several issues to be addressed in the fabrication process of Ni molds with a high-aspect-ratio using the PMMA microstructures. First, the residual PMMA was observed on the sidewall of PMMA master block by increasing the thickness of its master block. Second, the small voids were formed in the Ni molds when the high-aspect ratio PMMA master blocks were used. These problems ware resolved using the PMMA master blocks fabricated by PBW on the condition of the higher dose exposure than ordinal one and using a seed layer of a 600-$$mu$$m thick Cu substrate evaporated on the Si substrate before spin-coating the PMMA film. The 30-$$mu$$m PMMA master block with the aspect ratio of 30 was successfully fabricated using the above procedures. Using this PMMA master block, the Ni mold with 30-$$mu$$m thick on the Cu substrate was successfully electroformed without voids from the observation of the cross section revealed by a FIB. Furthermore, a Ni mold with grids and circle patterns was also successfully fabricated using a 15-$$mu$$m thick PMMA film spin-coated on a Cu substrate. The result of the thermal imprint using the Ni mold demonstrated that the high aspect structure was transferred on a PMMA film without damages of the Ni mold even after many trials.

論文

Fabrication of polymer optical waveguides for the 1.5-$$mu$$m band using focused proton beam

三浦 健太*; 町田 裕貴*; 上原 政人*; 桐生 弘武*; 小澤 優介*; 佐々木 友之*; 花泉 修*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 江夏 昌志; et al.

Key Engineering Materials, 497, p.147 - 150, 2011/12

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:2.48

Single mode straight waveguides for a wavelength of 1.55-$$mu$$m were, so far, fabricated using a proton beam writing (PBW) technique. We report the fabrication of Y-junction polymer waveguides with a polymethyl methacralate (PMMA) layers as the expansion of these straight waveguides using PBW in the conference. The PMMA layers consisted of an under-cladding layer of SiO$$_2$$ having a thickness of $$sim$$ 15-$$mu$$m deposited on an Si substrate, a PMMA layer having a thickness of $$sim$$ 10-$$mu$$m spin-coated onto the SiO$$_2$$ layer and a Y-junction waveguide with a width of 8-$$mu$$m in a PMMA core layer. The Y-junction waveguides with the angle of 2$$^{circ}$$ were drawn using the 1.7 MeV proton beam with 1-$$mu$$m in diameter and a beam current of 10 pA for a dose of 100 nC/mm$$^2$$. After spin-coating the PMMA layer with $$sim$$ 10-$$mu$$m thickness as an upper cladding on the irradiated PMMA layer, the near field pattern (NFP) of an 8-$$mu$$m-width Y-junction waveguide was observed using a tunable-wavelength laser. The observation showed that the fabrication of waveguide was succeeded because its waveguide was single mode and the intensity ratio between the two outputted lights was the almost same; 1:0.96. We also briefly report the next plans of the measurement of the refractive indices of proton-irradiated PMMA and SiO$$_2$$ films and the fabrication of a thermo-optic polymer switch based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer waveguide.

論文

Modeling of atomic processes of multiple charged ions in plasmas and its application to the study of EUV light sources

佐々木 明; 西原 功修*; 砂原 淳*; 古河 裕之*; 西川 亘*; 小池 文博*

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 6(Sp.1), p.2401145_1 - 2401145_4, 2011/12

多電子,多価電離イオンの原子過程,輻射輸送過程は、核融合装置においてはプラズマ壁相互作用や不純物輸送の観点で興味を持たれているが、波長13.5nmのEUV領域での発光は、次世代半導体リソグラフィ技術でも注目されている。Snイオンの4p-4d+4d-4f遷移で強い発光が得られ、その特性の理論的,実験的な最適化が行われているほか、GdやTbイオンを用い、波長6.5nmでも効率的な光源の実現可能性が理論的に示されている。プラズマからの放射強度、スペクトルの正確な評価のために必要な、原子物理コード、衝突輻射モデルの今後の研究課題についても述べる。

論文

Microbeam complex at TIARA; Technologies to meet a wide range of applications

神谷 富裕; 高野 勝昌; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 西川 宏之*; 関 修平*; 杉本 雅樹; 奥村 進; 福田 光宏*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 269(20), p.2184 - 2188, 2011/10

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:29.3(Instruments & Instrumentation)

In order to meet wide variety of ion beam applications, three different types of ion microbeam systems were developed. These systems have shown the spatial resolutions of less than 1 $$mu$$m and have made it possible to irradiate minute targets or areas with positioning accuracies of less than 1 $$mu$$m. For micro-analyses, an in-air micro-PIXE system was originally developed on the light ion microbeam system. For micro-fabrication, technique of mask-less ion beam lithography was developed on the light-ion microbeam and other systems. Single-ion-hit technique was also realized to study single-event phenomena in semiconductors or biological cells induced by high-energetic heavy particles. On the other hand, the qualities of the beam from accelerators were important, such as stability of the intensity and the energy of the beams. In this paper, the latest progress and a future prospect of them were discussed.

論文

Nano-micro processing of epoxy resin systems by ion beam lithography with multiple energies and species

高野 勝昌; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 江夏 昌志; 神谷 富裕; 大久保 猛; 杉本 雅樹; 西川 宏之*; 関 修平*

Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, 36(3), p.305 - 308, 2011/09

Techniques of superimposed ion beam writing with different energies and species have been developed with targeting system at Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application facility, TIARA, of JAEA/Takasaki. A bridge structure was fabricated by the superimposed writing of a girder pattern with 0.5 MeV proton beam adjusting to the bridge pier pattern written with 3 MeV proton beam, using SU-8 photoresist films coated on curing epoxy resin sheets. An upstanding column array with the diameter of sub-micron supported by the bridge structure was fabricated by the spot writing of 260 MeV Ne$$^{7+}$$ single ion hit adjusting to the girder pattern written with the 0.5 MeV proton beams.

論文

Electroforming of Ni mold for imprint lithography using high-aspect-ratio PMMA microstructures fabricated by proton beam writing

田邊 祐介*; 西川 宏之*; 関 佳裕*; 佐藤 隆博; 石井 保行; 神谷 富裕; 渡辺 徹*; 関口 淳*

Microelectronic Engineering, 88(8), p.2145 - 2148, 2011/08

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:56.76(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Proton Beam Writing (PBW) is a direct-write technique using focused MeV proton beams. Electroforming Ni molds with high-aspect-ratio are developed for imprint lithography using master blocks of PMMA micro-structures fabricated by PBW. In this development, two problems happened as follows; the master blocks with unmelted PMMA remaining into the PMMA micro-structure in the etching process after PBW and the Ni molds with defectively transcriptional structures electroformed on the clear master blocks of its PMMA micro-structure. In this report, the two relations between the PMMA structures and the etching process and between their structures and the electroforming process were individually studied to solve the problems. In the conference, we will present the two problems, the several researches for their solutions and the trial production results of the electroforming Ni molds using the master blocks of the high-aspect-ratio PMMA micro-structures fabricated by PBW.

報告書

原子炉圧力容器用確率論的破壊力学解析コードPASCAL3の使用手引き及び解析手法(受託研究)

眞崎 浩一; 西川 弘之*; 小坂部 和也*; 鬼沢 邦雄

JAEA-Data/Code 2010-033, 350 Pages, 2011/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2010-033.pdf:5.32MB

軽水炉構造機器の高経年化評価に関する研究の一環として、平成8年度から原子炉圧力容器に加圧熱衝撃(PTS: Pressurized Thermal Shock)等の過渡荷重が発生した場合の破壊確率を解析するコードである確率論的破壊力学解析コードPASCAL(PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWR)の開発を進めてきた。平成18年に公開したPASCAL2では、内部欠陥の評価手法,PTSトランジェントデータベース,非破壊検査によるき裂検出確率モデル,圧力容器全体の破壊確率評価機能等を導入した。平成19年度以降、引き続き肉盛溶接クラッド部に着目して破壊力学解析機能等の追加・改良を実施し、PASCAL3として整備を完了した。また、開発当初より実施してきた機能改良や感度解析を通じて得られた知見を取りまとめて標準的な解析条件を設定するとともに、入出力データを取り扱うグラフィカルユーザーインターフェース(GUI)も整備した。本報告書は、PASCAL3の使用マニュアル,解析例及び解析理論をまとめたものである。

論文

原子炉圧力容器用確率論的破壊力学解析コードPASCAL2のクラッド部評価に関する機能改良

西川 弘之*; 鬼沢 邦雄

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 10(1), p.12 - 23, 2011/03

加圧熱衝撃時における原子炉圧力容器の健全性評価手法に関する規格・基準の妥当性確認等に資することを目的に、原子力機構では確率論的破壊力学解析コードPASCAL2の整備を進めている。本研究では、原子炉圧力容器内面のクラッド部に着目したPASCAL2の解析機能のうち、脆性破壊時のき裂発生及び進展モデルの改良、及び非破壊検査モデルの追加を行った。改良したPASCAL2コードを用いて、き裂発生及び進展モデル、並びに非破壊検査モデルの各パラメータが破壊確率に及ぼす影響を評価した。この結果から、標準的なき裂発生及び進展モデルが示唆されるとともに、非破壊検査モデル適用における最大検出確率の重要性に関する知見が得られた。

論文

Theoretical investigation of the spectrum and conversion efficiency of short wavelength extreme-ultraviolet light sources based on terbium plasmas

佐々木 明; 西原 功修*; 砂原 淳*; 古河 裕之*; 西川 亘*; 小池 文博*

Applied Physics Letters, 97(23), p.231501_1 - 231501_3, 2010/12

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:47.74(Physics, Applied)

レーザー生成Tbプラズマの発光スペクトルやEUV変換効率を数値計算による原子データをもとに解析した。計算は波長6.5nmの4$$d$$-4$$f$$遷移の発光ピークの構造を再現した。等温膨張プラズマを仮定した簡単なモデルで解析を行い、照射レーザー光強度を高めることによりSnプラズマの同程度のEUV変換効率が得られる可能性があることを示した。

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