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Present status and practical issues on dosimetry for the lens of the eye at JAEA MOX Fuel Facilities

辻村 憲雄; 山崎 巧; 高田 千恵

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.40 - 44, 2021/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

At JAEA MOX fuel facilities, a worker usually wears a protective lead apron; therefore, the dose to the lens of the eye (lens dose) outside the apron is higher than that to the torso. To estimate the potential impact on the current facility operation of the ICRP-proposed lens dose limit reduction from 150 mSv/y to average 20 mSv/y, the authors carried out an analysis on the past dose records for the workers over the last 18 years. Of a total of 4,312 workers' records analyzed, two workers' annual lens doses exceeded the lowered limit of 20 mSv (23.3 mSv and 20.7 mSv), although the maximum effective dose was below 10 mSv in each case. These compiled dose data reveal that in the glovebox and related operations the lens dose will be a limiting factor in radiological control under the newly lowered dose limit. To ensure that the number of workers with an annual lens dose greater than 15 mSv (approximately 0.6% of the workers) is kept to a minimum, the implementation of an administrative control level for the lens dose is considered.


Measurements of the doses of eye lens for the workers of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

横山 須美*; 江崎 巌*; 立崎 英夫*; 立木 秀一*; 平尾 一茂*; 青木 克憲; 谷村 嘉彦; 星 勝也; 吉富 寛; 辻村 憲雄

Radiation Measurements, 138, p.106399_1 - 106399_5, 2020/11


In Japan, the possibility to change the current dose limit of the lens of the eye for the radiation workers working in the planned exposure situation (normal controlled situations) to a new ICRP dose limit was discussed. It was further discussed how to appropriately monitor and manage the equivalent dose of the eye lenses for these workers exposed to radiation at their workplaces, such as nuclear and medical facilities. Among the workers exposed to a high-dose radiation at the water storage flange tank deconstructed $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y dominant areas and the nuclear reactor buildings (high dose gamma-ray) of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F-NPP), H$$_{p}$$(10), H$$_{p}$$(3), and H$$_{p}$$(0.07) at the head and the chest (or the upper arm) were estimated by passive personal dosimeters using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and radio photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGDs). The relationship between H$$_{p}$$(10), H$$_{p}$$(3), and H$$_{p}$$(0.07) along with the effects of the sites of wearing dosimeters on the head inside a full-face mask and the chest (or upper arm) were discussed.


Evaluation of effective dose for exposures in the environment

斎藤 公明

Annals of the ICRP, 49(2), p.7 - 9, 2020/10

環境中に分布したガンマ線源による外部被ばくに対する線量係数を集約した国際放射線防護委員会(ICRP)Publication 144のGuest Editorialを執筆した。この中で、実効線量の起源とその歴史、執筆者と実効線量との関わり、環境ガンマ線に対する実効線量の特徴、Publication 144の概要についてまとめた。



岡 壽崇; 高橋 温*

放射線化学(インターネット), (110), p.13 - 19, 2020/10



Japanese population dose from natural radiation

大森 康孝*; 細田 正洋*; 高橋 史明; 真田 哲也*; 平尾 茂一*; 小野 孝二*; 古川 雅英*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 40(3), p.R99 - R140, 2020/09

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:16.34(Environmental Sciences)



Improvement of detection limit in differential die-away analysis system for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security

大図 章; 前田 亮; 米田 政夫; 藤 暢輔

Proceedings of 2019 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (IEEE NSS/MIC 2019), Vol.1, p.101 - 104, 2020/08

In the fields of safeguards, nuclear non-proliferation, and nuclear security, non-destructive analysis (NDA) techniques useful for highly radioactive nuclear materials (NMs) are not established yet because there are so many technical difficulties to measure the amount of the highly radioactive NMs. A novel NDA system with a pulsed neutron source as the method for determining the composition of mixed NMs has been developing in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In the NDA system, a differential die-away analysis (DDA) technique is used to quantify the amount of fissile materials. The detection limit of fissile materials in DDA system is determined by the signal to noise ratio in fast neutron counting. A method to reduce the noise signal by using neutron absorber (B$$_{4}$$C rubber) sheets mounted on the inner entire surface in the sample cavity is proposed. The effect of the sheets on the reduction of noise signal in the fast neutron counting was investigated in both experimental test and simulation. The experimental results show that it is possible to detect a nuclear fissile material ($$^{239}$$Pu) of as low as 1 mg in a vial bottle when the absorber sheets with a thickness of 3 mm is used. This paper also presents comparison between experimental data and simulation results.



辻村 憲雄

Radioisotopes, 69(8), p.253 - 261, 2020/08




斎藤 公明

東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故による環境汚染の研究調査の進展と課題(インターネット), p.8 - 10, 2020/07




澤口 拓磨; 高井 静霞; 武田 聖司

JAEA-Research 2020-005, 47 Pages, 2020/06





高原 省五

放射線生物研究, 55(2), p.162 - 172, 2020/06

本稿は、低線量リスク委員会(日本保健物理学会と日本放射線影響学会の合同委員会)での取り組みを取りまとめた報告書の一部である。本委員会では、低線量リスクの放射線安全規制の基盤となる放射線疫学から放射線生物学の現状認識、さらには、社会的背景との関連性をも検討して、これらの知見が放射線安全規制にどのように繋がっているのか、放射線科学の生物, 疫学, リスク,防護の各専門分野を超えたコンセンサスレポートを作成した。本稿ではこれらの議論から得られた成果のうち、低線量リスクに関する放射線防護の基本的な考え方を取りまとめたものである。1985年にレントゲンにより放射線が発見されて以降、どのような健康影響が生じてきたのか、また、どのようにしてそれらの影響から人々を防護してきたのかについて整理した。また、福島第一原子力発電所事故の経験を踏まえながら現在の放射線防護体系の基本的考え方を整理しつつ、今後の事故後対応に向けた課題を抽出した。


Eye lens dosimetry for workers at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 2; Field study using humanoid phantoms

辻村 憲雄; 星 勝也; 青木 克憲; 吉富 寛; 谷村 嘉彦; 横山 須美*

Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106305_1 - 106305_5, 2020/06

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We performed a field study of eye lens dosimetry for workers involved in the decommissioning operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In this study, humanoid phantoms equipped with different personal dosemeters were placed at selected locations in the workplace. The experiment showed that $$H_{rm p}$$(3) at the head is about 20% higher than $$H_{rm p}$$(10) (or $$H_{rm p}$$(3)) at the trunk. This level of dose gradient is generally interpreted as being "almost uniform" in radiological control; therefore, tasks conducted in open areas with such relatively small dose gradients ($$sim$$1.2) will not require specific monitoring with eye lens dosemeters, except when the eye lens dose approaches the dose limit.


External exposure dose estimation by electron spin resonance technique for wild Japanese macaque captured in Fukushima Prefecture

岡 壽崇; 高橋 温*; 小荒井 一真; 光安 優典*; 木野 康志*; 関根 勉*; 清水 良央*; 千葉 美麗*; 鈴木 敏彦*; 小坂 健*; et al.

Radiation Measurements, 134, p.106315_1 - 106315_4, 2020/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Organ absorbed dose estimation reflecting specific organ masses with simple scaling of reference doses using the organ masses

真辺 健太郎; 小山 修司*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(4), p.489 - 496, 2020/05


核医学検査における被ばく線量の最適化において正確な内部被ばく線量評価が求められる場合は、個人の特性を考慮することが必要である。そこで、本研究では、個人の臓器質量を反映した吸収線量評価を簡易的に実施するため、基準となる人体モデルに基づく吸収線量を個人の臓器質量によりスケーリングする手法を提案し、その実効性を$$^{rm 99m}$$Tcコロイドの静注投与及び$$^{123}$$I標識ヨウ化ナトリウムの経口投与に対する線量評価で検証した。$$^{rm 99m}$$Tc又は$$^{123}$$Iがよく集積する組織・臓器の吸収線量について本手法による評価値と詳細な解析に基づく評価値を比較したところ、赤色骨髄のように体内に広く分布する組織・臓器では誤差が大きかったものの、肝臓や脾臓、甲状腺のような実質臓器については精度よく評価できることが確認でき、本手法の実効性が示された。


Conversion factor from dosemeter reading to air kerma for nuclear worker using anthropomorphic phantom for further conversion from air kerma to organ-absorbed dose

古田 裕繁*; 辻村 憲雄; 西出 朱美*; 工藤 伸一*; 三枝 新*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 189(3), p.371 - 383, 2020/05


Estimation of cancer risk based on the organ-absorbed dose is underway for the Japanese Epidemiological Study on Low-Dose Radiation Effects (J-EPISODE). The reconstruction method for the organ-absorbed dose follows the approach adopted in the IARC 15-Country Collaborative Study, which examined the dosemeter response to photon exposure for the old film badge (FB) type, a multi-element FB and a thermoluminescence dosemeter. Until 2000, the dosemeters used in Japan were almost the same in the IARC study, so IARC study data could be used as they were. However, since 2000, the type of dosemeter has been replaced with active personal dosemeters (hereafter called electronic personal dosemeters), radio-photoluminescent glass dosemeters (Glass badge) and optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters (Luminess badge). Hence, it was necessary to collect these data again. A dosemeter response experiment was conducted using a device that irradiated an anthropomorphic phantom in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency calibration laboratories. The aim of the paper is to provide a conversion factor from reading in terms of $$H_{rm p}$$(10) to air kerma for realistic conditions for further conversion from air kerma to organ-absorbed dose. The obtained dosemeter responses for the dosemeter types currently used in Japan were consistent with those in the IARC study. These data will be utilized for J-EPISODE in reconstructing the organ-absorbed dose.


Exposure inhomogeneity from $$^{241}$$Am and $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y sources in terms of the eye lens monitoring in the nuclear facilities

吉富 寛; 古渡 意彦

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(2), p.191 - 198, 2020/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Environmental Sciences)

This paper highlights the issues of exposure inhomogeneity that are relative to eye lens monitoring for low-energy photons from $$^{241}$$Am and beta-rays from $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y including a personal protective equipment because eye lens exposure has been concerned more than before due to the proposed reduction of relevant dose limit. These nuclides are common sources in the nuclear industry, which are particularly of concern. Our previous study presented a quantitative estimation of exposure inhomogeneity, which was applied to simple but typical exposure situations to the radionuclides. For the present study, exposure inhomogeneity of $$^{241}$$Am was approximately within a factor of 1.6, implying a rather homogeneous situation than expected. Regarding $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y exposure, estimation from both $$H_{rm p}$$(10) and $$H_{rm p}$$(0.07) on trunk would lead to an over- or underestimation by a factor of more than ten. In contrast, $$H_{rm p}$$(3) measurement on trunk will improve by up to a factor of two. With respect to the personal protective equipment, lead apron and protective glasses are effective for the 60-keV photons for both anterior-posterior (AP) and rotational (ROT) irradiations, while a full-face respirator can reduce the eye lens dose by approximately 17% for $$^{90}$$Sr/$$^{90}$$Y betas. As a whole, this study demonstrated that the effect of protective equipment can be effectively incorporated into the homogeneity evaluation.


Dose estimation for contaminated soil storage in living environment

高井 静霞; 島田 亜佐子; 澤口 拓磨; 武田 聖司; 木村 英雄

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 188(1), p.1 - 7, 2020/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:100(Environmental Sciences)



環境中空間線量率3次元分布計算システム(3D-ADRES)の研究開発; PHITSとリモートセンシングの融合による環境放射線量の推定

Kim, M.; Malins, A.; 佐久間 一幸; 北村 哲浩; 町田 昌彦; 長谷川 幸弘*; 柳 秀明*

Isotope News, (765), p.30 - 33, 2019/10



Time-dependent change of radiation levels in the 80 km zone for five years after the Fukushima accident

斎藤 公明

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster; Dispersion, Monitoring, Mitigation and Lessons Learned, p.38 - 43, 2019/09




Assessment of inhomogeneity of exposure to radiation workers in homogeneous exposure situations in Nuclear Industry and Accelerator Facility by using Monte Carlo calculations coupled with a mathematical phantom; Exposure to the lens of the eye in homogeneous exposure situation due to gamma and beta rays

古渡 意彦; 吉富 寛

Radioisotopes, 68(9), p.595 - 603, 2019/09

The recommended annual limit of equivalent dose to the lens of the eye has decreased to 20 mSv y$$^{-1}$$ from the current limit of 150 mSv y$$^{-1}$$. In terms of occupational exposure to radiation workers, exposure inhomogeneity plays an important role when estimating the eye lens dose from readings of dosimeters worn by workers on their trunk. The authors focused on homogeneous exposure situations that radiation workers may encounter in nuclear and accelerator facilities. Moreover, the authors investigated how radiation workers are exposed non-homogeneously in homogeneous exposure scenarios, where radiation workers may usually be encountered, regardless of their radiation works. In our previous study, we proposed a methodology to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneity of exposure. The homogeneity of exposure was evaluated by performing Monte Carlo calculations with a mathematical phantom under the isotropic and rotational irradiation geometries due to gamma and beta rays. $$H_{rm p}$$(3)$$_{rm eye}$$/$$H_{rm p}$$(10)$$_{rm trunk}$$ exceeded 1.0 even in the case of homogeneous exposure to gamma rays. Even in the homogeneous exposure scenarios, the $$H_{rm p}$$(3)$$_{rm eye}$$ might exceed the revised annual dose limit for radiation workers who are exposed close to annual dose limit.


Recent discussions toward regulatory implementation of the new occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye and related studies in Japan

横山 須美*; 浜田 信之*; 辻村 憲雄

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 95(8), p.1103 - 1112, 2019/08

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:28.97(Biology)

In 2011, the ICRP recommended reducing an occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye. Since then, there have been extensive discussions toward regulatory implementation of such new occupational dose limit. In Japan, the Radiation Council established a Subcommittee in July 2017 to discuss the feasibility of implementing the new occupational lens dose limit. In March 2018, the Radiation Council requested all relevant government ministries and agencies to take necessary actions toward implementation of the new occupational dose limit, considering a series of discussions made by the Subcommittee. According to the currently available information, the new occupational lens dose limit will be implemented into regulations in Japan, most likely in April 2021. Epidemiological and biological studies on radiation effects on the lens and studies on lens dose measurements have been conducted in Japan, some of which have been funded by the Japanese Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper provides an overview of the recent discussions toward regulatory implementation and the current status of the studies related to radiation exposure of the lens and its effect in Japan.

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