※ 半角英数字
 年 ~ 
検索結果: 551 件中 1件目~20件目を表示


Initialising ...



Initialising ...


Initialising ...


Initialising ...


Initialising ...


Initialising ...


Initialising ...


Initialising ...



A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:79.8

CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.


Impact of MOX fuel use in light-water reactors; Long-term radiological consequences of disposal of high-level waste in a geological repository

三成 映理子*; 樺沢 さつき; 三原 守弘; 牧野 仁史; 朝野 英一*; 中瀬 正彦*; 竹下 健二*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.793 - 803, 2023/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:45.11(Nuclear Science & Technology)

As a series of studies to evaluate impact of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs), post-closure long-term safety for various vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) arising from the different fuel cycle intends to recycle Pu are examined. In this study, four fuel cycle scenarios with different ratio of spent MOX generated and two reprocessing options for each fuel cycle scenario are considered. One reprocessing option considers disposal of vitrified HLW generated separately from the reprocessing of spent UO$$_{2}$$ fuel and MOX fuel (separated HLW), and the other is blended vitrified UO$$_{2}$$-MOX HLW (blended HLW) generated during reprocessing whereby MOX spent fuel is diluted by UO$$_{2}$$ spent fuel. First, the radionuclide inventories of those vitrified HLWs are discussed. Next, radionuclide migration analyses for geological disposal of those vitrified HLWs are evaluated. It has revealed that the disposal of blended HLW will not have an adverse effect on the long-term radiological impact compared to separated HLW. Results of this study can be used as a basis for considering the blending option as a viable alternative approach in the future for managing MOX fuel used in light-water reactors.


Radio-tellurium released into the environment during the complete oxidation of fuel cladding, containment venting and reactor building failure of the Fukushima accident

日高 昭秀; 川島 茂人*; 梶野 瑞王*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.743 - 758, 2023/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:97.1(Nuclear Science & Technology)

福島事故時に放出された放射性物質量の推定は、原子炉の事故進展や環境影響の評価にとって不可欠である。そこで、ヨウ素,Csに次いで放出量が多いTeについて、単位放出量を想定したメソスケール気象モデル計算で得られた時間ごとの沈着量に基づいて沈着量分布を重み付けする、単位放出回帰推定法を用いて検討した。前回の検討では、この手法の適用性確認に主眼を置き、発生源について暫定的な結果を得ることができた。しかし、その後の検討で、放出があったと思われる期間の一部が放出推定期間から欠落していると、ソースターム計算全体に歪みが生じることが判明した。このため、本研究では、推定期間を延長し、主要な放出を全て含むように再計算を行った。その結果、これまで特定されなかった放出事象が明らかになり、炉内事象との対応も確認できた。また、炉心注水時のZr被覆管完全酸化による$$^{rm 129m}$$Te放出事象を考慮することにより、土壌汚染マップにおける$$^{rm 129m}$$Te/$$^{137}$$Cs比の地域依存性を説明することができた。さらに、本検討に基づき、WSPEEDI逆計算では予測できなかった3月11日夜,13日,14日早朝にヨウ素とCsの放出が増加した可能性を指摘した。


Spontaneous topological Hall effect induced by non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in intercalated van der Waals materials

高木 寛貴*; 高木 里奈*; 見波 将*; 野本 拓也*; 大石 一城*; 鈴木 通人*; 柳 有起*; 平山 元昭*; Khanh, N.*; 軽部 皓介*; et al.

Nature Physics, 19(7), p.961 - 968, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In ferromagnets, electric current generally induces a transverse Hall voltage in proportion to the internal magnetization. This effect is frequently used for electrical readout of the spin up and down states. While these properties are usually not expected in antiferromagnets, recent theoretical studies predicted that non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order with finite scalar spin chirality - meaning a solid angle spanned by neighboring spins - can induce a large spontaneous Hall effect even without net magnetization or external magnetic field. This phenomenon, the spontaneous topological Hall effect, can potentially be used for the efficient electrical readout of the antiferromagnetic states, but it has not been experimentally verified due to a lack of appropriate materials hosting such magnetism. Here, we report the discovery of all-in-all-out type non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in triangular lattice compounds CoTa$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$ and CoNb$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$. These compounds are reported to host unconventionally large spontaneous Hall effect despite their vanishingly small net magnetization, and our analysis reveals that it can be explained in terms of the topological Hall effect that originates from the fictitious magnetic field associated with scalar spin chirality. These results indicate that the scalar spin chirality mechanism offers a promising route to the realisation of giant spontaneous Hall response even in compensated antiferromagnets, and highlight intercalated van der Waals magnets as a promising quasi-two-dimensional material platform to enable various nontrivial ways of electrical reading and possible writing of non-coplanar antiferromagnetic domains.


Study on borehole sealing corresponding to hydrogeological structures by groundwater flow analysis

澤口 拓磨; 高井 静霞; 笹川 剛; 打越 絵美子*; 嶋 洋佑*; 武田 聖司

MRS Advances (Internet), 8(6), p.243 - 249, 2023/06



Development of dynamic PRA methodology for external hazards in sodium-cooled fast reactor via applying Markov chain Monte Carlo method to severe accident analysis code; Assessment of accident management of assigning independent emergency diesel generators to each air cooler

Li, C.-Y.; 渡部 晃*; 内堀 昭寛; 岡野 靖

Proceedings of 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE30) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2023/05

Quantitative assessment of the effect of accident management on the various external hazards is essential in the nuclear safety analysis. This study aims to establish the dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methodology for sodium-cooled fast reactors that can consider the transient plant status under continuous external hazards with corresponding countermeasures operating stochastically. Specifically, the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo (CMMC) and Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets (DSPN) methods are newly applied to the severe accident analysis code, SPECTRA, which can conduct dynamic plant evaluation in the different severe accident conditions of nuclear reactors, to develop an evaluation methodology for typical external hazards. In the DSPN-CMMC-SPECTRA coupled frame, the latest safety functions of the plant components/systems can be stochastically determined by the DSPN-CMMC grounded on the current plant states under continuous hazard and the interaction between the multi-state components/systems; then, SPECTRA can evaluate the following plant state determined by the latest safety function of the components/systems. Therefore, the advantage of this newly developed DSPN-CMMC-SPECTRA frame is having the capability to quantitatively and stochastically evaluate the transient accident progressions that potentially lead to the core damage under the continuous external hazard scenario. As for the preliminary exam on the DSPN-CMMC-SPECTRA frame, one of the typical external hazards of continuous volcanic ashfall is selected in this research. In addition, the numerical investigation of alternative accident management' effects has also been carried out and quantitatively confirmed in this research.


放射線・化学・生物的作用の複合効果による燃料デブリ劣化機構の解明(委託研究); 令和3年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東京工業大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-066, 91 Pages, 2023/03




Chapter 5, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)/ Chapter 12, Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan

久保 重信; 近澤 佳隆; 大島 宏之; 上出 英樹

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition, p.173 - 194, 2023/03



Pore connectivity influences mass transport in natural rocks; Pore structure, gas diffusion and batch sorption studies

Yuan, X.*; Hu, Q.*; Lin, X.*; Zhao, C.*; Wang, Q.*; 舘 幸男; 深津 勇太; 濱本 昌一郎*; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Li, X.*

Journal of Hydrology, 618, p.129172_1 - 129172_15, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Civil)

Mass transport in geomedia as influenced by the pore structure is an important phenomenon. Six rocks (granodiorite, limestone, two chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) with different extents of heterogeneity at six different particle sizes were studied to describe the effects of pore connectivity on mass transport. The multiple methods applied were porosity measurement, gas diffusion test, and batch sorption test of multiple ions. Porosity measurement results reveal that with decreasing particle sizes, the effective porosities for the "heterogenous" group (granodiorite and limestone) increase, whereas the porosities of "homogeneous" group (chalks, mudstone, and dolostone) roughly remain constant. Gas diffusion results show that the intraparticle gas diffusion coefficient among these two groups, varying in the magnitude of 10$$^{-8}$$ to 10$$^{-6}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s. The batch sorption work displays a different affinity of these rocks for tracers, which are related to their mineral components. For granodiorite, mudstone, and dolostone, the adsorption capacity increases as the particle size decreases, due to higher specific surface area in smaller particle-size. In general, this integrated research of grain size distribution, rock porosity, intraparticle diffusivity, and ionic sorption capacity gives insights into the pore connectivity effect on both gas diffusion and chemical transport behaviors for different lithologies and/or different particle sizes.


幌延深地層研究計画; 令和4年度調査研究計画

中山 雅

JAEA-Review 2022-026, 66 Pages, 2022/11




幌延深地層研究計画; 令和3年度調査研究成果報告

中山 雅

JAEA-Review 2022-025, 164 Pages, 2022/11




A Widespread group of large plasmids in methanotrophic ${it Methanoperedens}$ archaea

Schoelmerich, M. C.*; Oubouter, H. T.*; Sachdeva, R.*; Penev, P. I.*; 天野 由記; West-Roberts, J.*; Welte, C. U.*; Banfield, J. F.*

Nature Communications (Internet), 13, p.7085_1 - 7085_11, 2022/11

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:63.69(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) make energy from the breakdown of methane, an important driver of global warming, yet the extrachromosomal genetic elements that impact the activities of ANME are little understood. Here we describe large plasmids associated with ANME of the Methanoperedens Genus. These have been maintained in two enrichment bioreactors that are highly dominated by different ${it Methanoperedens}$ species and associate with ${it Methanoperedens}$ species in other anaerobic environments. By manual curation we show that two of the plasmids are large (155,607 bp and 191,912 bp), circular, and replicate bidirectionally. The group of ${it Methanoperedens}$ species that carry these plasmids is related to ${it M. nitroreducens}$,${it M. ferrireducens}$ and ${it M. manganicus}$ and the plasmids occur in the same copy number as the main chromosome. The larger plasmid encodes transporters that potentially enhance ${it Methanoperedens}$ access to Ni, which is required for the MCR complex, Co required for the cobalamin cofactor needed for methyltransferases tied to central processes and amino acid uptake. We show that many plasmid genes are actively transcribed, including genes involved in plasmid chromosome maintenance and segregation, a Co$$^{2+}$$/Ni$$^{2+}$$ transporter and cell protective proteins. Notably, plasmid-borne genes for a ribosomal protein uL16 and adjacent elongation factor eEF2 are highly expressed. These are not encoded in the host ${it Methanoperedens}$ genome, indicating an obligate interdependence between this plasmid and its host. The finding of plasmids of ${it Methanoperedens}$ opens the way for the development of genetic vectors that could be used to probe little understood aspects of ${it Methanoperedens}$ physiology. Ultimately, this may provide a route to introduce or alter genes that may enhance growth and overall metabolism to accelerate methane oxidation rates.


Clogging properties of HEPA filter induced by loading of soot from burned glove-box panel materials

田代 信介; 大野 卓也; 天野 祐希; 吉田 涼一朗; 渡邉 浩二*; 阿部 仁

Nuclear Technology, 208(10), p.1553 - 1561, 2022/10

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Novel $$^{90}$$Sr analysis of environmental samples by ion-laser interaction mass spectrometry

本多 真紀; Martschini, M.*; Marchhart, O.*; Priller, A.*; Steier, P.*; Golser, R.*; 佐藤 哲也; 塚田 和明; 坂口 綾*

Analytical Methods, 14(28), p.2732 - 2738, 2022/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:63.15(Chemistry, Analytical)



Development of dynamic PRA methodology for external hazards (Application of CMMC method to severe accident analysis code)

Li, C.-Y.; 渡部 晃*; 内堀 昭寛; 岡野 靖

第26回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2022/07



Evolution of the reaction and alteration of granite with Ordinary Portland cement leachates; Sequential flow experiments and reactive transport modelling

Bateman, K.*; 村山 翔太*; 花町 優次*; Wilson, J.*; 瀬田 孝将*; 天野 由記; 久保田 満*; 大内 祐司*; 舘 幸男

Minerals (Internet), 12(7), p.883_1 - 883_20, 2022/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.02(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

The construction of a repository for geological disposal of radioactive waste will include the use of cement-based materials. Following closure, groundwater will saturate the repository and the extensive use of cement will result in the development of a highly alkaline porewater, pH $$>$$ 12.5; this fluid will migrate into and react with the host rock. The chemistry of the fluid will evolve over time, initially high [Na] and [K], evolving to a Ca-rich fluid, and finally returning to the groundwater composition. This evolving chemistry will affect the long-term performance of the repository, altering the physical and chemical properties, including radionuclide behaviour. Understanding these changes forms the basis for predicting the long-term evolution of the repository. This study focused on the determination of the nature and extent of the chemical reaction, as well as the formation and persistence of secondary mineral phases within a granite, comparing data from sequential flow experiments with the results of reactive transport modelling. The reaction of the granite with the cement leachates resulted in small changes in pH and the precipitation of calcium aluminum silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H) phases of varying compositions, of greatest abundance with the Ca-rich fluid. As the system evolved, secondary C-(A-)S-H phases re-dissolved, partly replaced by zeolites. This general sequence was successfully simulated using reactive transport modelling.


放射性核種の長期安定化を指向した使用済みゼオライト焼結固化技術の開発(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 芝浦工業大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-008, 116 Pages, 2022/06




放射線・化学・生物的作用の複合効果による燃料デブリ劣化機構の解明(委託研究); 令和2年度英知を結集した原子力科学技術・人材育成推進事業

廃炉環境国際共同研究センター; 東京工業大学*

JAEA-Review 2022-005, 93 Pages, 2022/06




オールジャパンでとりくむ地層処分のいま,6; 処分場閉鎖後の安全評価(その2)

舘 幸男; 斉藤 拓巳*; 桐島 陽*

日本原子力学会誌ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(5), p.290 - 295, 2022/05



J-PARCにおける加速器駆動核変換システム(ADS)の研究開発,1; 加速器駆動核変換システム(ADS)

前川 藤夫

プラズマ・核融合学会誌, 98(5), p.201 - 205, 2022/05


551 件中 1件目~20件目を表示