Saito, Tatsuo; Sato, Kazuhiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 237, p.106708_1 - 106708_9, 2021/10
We succeeded at numerical reproduction of dissolved U concentrations from column experiments with PO-treated Hanford 300 Area sediment. The time-series curves of dissolved U concentrations under various Darcy flow rate conditions were reproduced by the numerical model in the present study through optimization of the following parameters:(i) the mass of U in mobile domain (on surface soil connected to the stream) and the rest of the total U left as precipitation in immobile domain (isolated in deep soil);(ii) the mixing ratio between immobile and mobile domains, to fit the final recovering curve of concentration; and (iii) the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and equilibrium constant (k) of the exchange reaction of UO and H on simulated soil surface (), to fit the transient equilibrium concentration, forming the bed of the bathtub curve.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tokyo Institute of Technology*
JAEA-Review 2020-060, 116 Pages, 2021/02
JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of Stable Solidification Technique of ALPS Sediment Wastes by Apatite Ceramics" conducted in FY2019.
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-042, 116 Pages, 2021/01
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R and D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2019 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.
Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Kondo, Akira*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 225, p.106452_1 - 106452_12, 2020/12
This study focused on the uncertainty of the factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and evaluated its impacts on the environmental fate of Cs simulated by a radiocesium transport model in the Abukuma River basin. The USLE has five physically meaningful factors: the rainfall and runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover and management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). The simulation results showed total suspended sediment and Cs outflows were the most sensitive to C and P among the all factors. Therefore, land cover and soil erosion prevention act have the great impact on outflow of suspended sediment and Cs. Focusing on land use, the outflow rates of Cs from the forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields were large. This study indicates that land use, especially forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields, has a significant impact on the environmental fate of Cs.
Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Uyama, Masao*; Nakaoka, Kenichi*; Fukaya, Masaaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2020-010, 142 Pages, 2020/11
In the geological disposal study of high-level radioactive waste, it is suggested that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) which is created around a tunnel by the excavation will be possible to be one of the critical path of radionuclides. Especially, the progress of cracks in and around the EDZ with time affects the safety assessment of geological disposal and it is important to understand the hydraulic change due to the progress of cracks in and around EDZ. In this collaborative research, monitoring tools made by Obayashi Corporation were installed at a total of 9 locations in the three boreholes near the depth of 370 m of East Shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory constructed in the Neogene sedimentary rock. The monitoring tool consists of one set of "optical AE sensor" for measuring of the mechanical rock mass behavior and "optical pore water pressure sensor and optical temperature sensor" for measuring of groundwater behavior. This tool was made for the purpose of selecting and analyzing of AE signal waveforms due to rock fracture during and after excavation of the target deep shaft. As a result of analyzing various measurement data including AE signal waveforms, it is able to understand the information on short-term or long-term progress of cracks in and around EDZ during and after excavation in the deep shaft. In the future, it will be possible to carry out a study that contributes to the long-term stability evaluation of EDZ in sedimentary rocks in the deep part of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory by evaluation based on these analytical data.
Sheikh, M. A. R.*; Liu, X.*; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Morita, Koji*; Guo, L.*; Suzuki, Toru*; Kamiyama, Kenji
Energies (Internet), 13(19), p.5018_1 - 5018_15, 2020/10
Sugiura, Yuki; Suyama, Tadahiro*; Tachi, Yukio
JAEA-Data/Code 2019-022, 40 Pages, 2020/03
Sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs) in buffer materials, rocks and cementitious materials is one of the key processes in a safe geological disposal. This report focuses on updating of JAEA sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as a basis of integrated approach for the performance assessment (PA)-related distribution coefficient (K) setting and development of mechanistic sorption models. K data and their quality assurance (QA) results were updated by focusing on the following systems as potential needs extracted from our recent activities on the K setting and development of mechanistic models, i.e., clay minerals, sedimentary rocks and cementitious materials. As a result, 6,702 K data from 60 references were added and the total number of K values in JAEA-SDB reached 69,679. The QA/classified K data reached about 72% for all K data in JAEA-SDB.
Miyara, Nobukatsu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki
JAEA-Data/Code 2019-013, 8 Pages, 2020/01
As part of the research and development program on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. This data collection is a compilation of Earthquake observation data acquired in the Horonobe Underground Research Project (Phase II).
Nakayama, Masashi; Ono, Hirokazu
JAEA-Research 2019-007, 132 Pages, 2019/12
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL Project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "Research and Development on Geological Disposal Technologies". The in-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system (EBS experiment) had been prepared from 2013 to 2014 fiscal year at GL-350m gallery, and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack had started in January, 2015. One of objectives of the EBS experiment is acquiring data concerned with Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) coupled behavior. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. This report shows following works had carried out at the GL-350 m gallery. Excavation of a test niche and a test pit, Setting buffer material blocks and a simulated overpack into the test pit, Backfilling the niche by compaction backfilling material and setting backfilling material blocks, Casting concrete type plug and contact grouting, Consolidate measurement system and start measuring.
Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2018-027, 125 Pages, 2019/02
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2017 fiscal year (2017/2018). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R&D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2017 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.
Sanada, Yukihisa; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Ochi, Kotaro; Matsuzaki, Koji*; Ogawa, Toshihiro*; Senga, Yasuhiro*
Kaiyo Riko Gakkai-Shi, 24(2), p.9 - 18, 2018/12
Seven years passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident which was caused large amount of radionuclide release to the sea. Elucidation of behavior mechanism of radiocesium in the seabed is required for restarting fishing industry. We developed radiation detection system using the unmanned surface vehicle for in-situ measurement of radiocesium concentration in seabed sediment. This system is able to automatically navigate to measurement point and obtain the radiation data on the bottom sediment. The detector was calibrated by comparing the actual sediment samples. The periodical measurement off-shore the Fukushima Prefecture was performed using developed this system. As these results, distribution of radiocesium concentration was changed due to oceanographic condition. However, radiocesium inventory was tendency to decrease according to radiocesium half-life in measurement area. This system is effective for elucidation of behavior mechanism of radiocesium because it can easily measure the radiocesium concentration in the bottom sediment.
JAEA-Technology 2018-006, 43 Pages, 2018/08
The Horonobe URL Project has being pursued by JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, Hokkaido. The URL Project proceeds in 3 overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigations", "Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation" and "Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities", over a period of around 20 years. The OP corrosion test was prepared from 2013 FY at Niche No.3, and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack started in November, 2014. The objective of the test is acquiring data concerned with corrosion of carbon steel OP. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. In the OP corrosion test, the diameter of simulated OP and buffer material are 100 mm and 300 mm, respectively. Concrete support using low alkaline cement was used in order to investigate the effect of cementitious materials to OP corrosion behavior. We will measure corrosion potential of carbon steel, natural potential, pH in buffer material for several years. In this report, we describe how to make simulated OP and buffer material blocks, and set sensors, and so on.
Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(8), p.874 - 884, 2018/08
As parts of severe accident studies in sodium-cooled fast reactor, experiments were performed to investigate the termination mechanism of sodium-concrete reaction (SCR). In the experiment, the reaction time was controlled to investigate the distribution change of sodium (Na) and the reaction products in the pool and around the reaction front. In the results, the Na around the reaction front decreased from the enough amount with the reaction time. The concentrations were 18-24 wt.% for Na, and 22-18 wt.% for Si after the termination. From the thermodynamics calculations, the stable materials around the reaction front comprised more than 90 wt.% solid products such as NaSiO, and no Na. Further, the distribution of Na and reaction products could be explained by a steady-state sedimentation-diffusion model. At the early stage of SCR, the reaction products were suspended as particles in the Na pool because of the high H-generation rate. As the concrete ablation proceeds, they start settling down due to the decreased H-generation rate, thereby allowing SCR termination. It was concluded that SCR termination was caused by the sediment of the reaction products and the lack of Na around the reaction front.
Nakayama, Masashi; Niunoya, Sumio*; Miura, Norihiko*; Takeda, Nobufumi*
JAEA-Research 2017-016, 62 Pages, 2018/01
The Horonobe URL Project has being pursued by JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formation at Horonobe, Hokkaido. The URL Project consists of 2 major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "Research and Development on Geological Disposal Technologies", and proceeds in 3 overlapping phases, over a period of around 20 years. Phase III (Investigations in the underground facilities) investigation was started in 2010 FY. The in-situ experiment for performance confirmation of engineered barrier system (EBS experiment) had started 2013 at GL-350 m gallery, and heating by electric heater in simulated overpack had started in January, 2015. One of objectives of the EBS experiment is acquiring data concerned with THMC coupled behavior. These data will be used in order to confirm the performance of engineered barrier system. This report shows consideration of concrete-type plug composition. The low alkaline cement developed by JAEA, called HFSC, was used for the plug. HFSC has used in construction test at the gallery as shotcrete in Horonobe URL.
Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Harada, Hisaya*; Misono, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Hodotsuka, Yasuyuki*
Journal of Oceanography, 73(5), p.547 - 558, 2017/10
The seafloor topography was divided into flat and terrace seafloors based on their topographical features and seabed sediments were distributed in an area that was half a degree of the entire investigation area. The Cs inventory was several tens of kBq/m and the grain sizes (the D50 values) were nearly constant (fine sand) on the flat seafloor. On the terrace seafloor, the Cs inventory was larger than that on the flat seafloor, and the grain size varied from silt to coarse sand. The grain size distributions appear to be influenced by the mean shear stress at the seafloor bottom, and a significant factor in the mean shear stress is thought to be the seafloor topography. Distributions of remarkably large Cs inventories, more than several thousands of kBq/m, are thought to be confined to a small area. Vertical changes in the Cs inventories suggested that the Cs inventories have significantly decreased in large areas of the shallow sea.
Kawata, Ryo*; Ohara, Yohei*; Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Liu, X.*; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Morita, Koji*; Guo, L.*; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Toru
Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*
Journal of MMIJ, 133(2), p.25 - 33, 2017/02
In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydro-mechanical properties of excavation damaged zones (EDZs) along the galleries excavated in 250 m and 350 m depths. We conducted hydraulic tests, BTV observations and core analyses. As a result, in the 250 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 1.0 m into the gallery wall. The hydraulic conductivity was increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. On the other hand, in the 350 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 0.4 m into the gallery wall; the hydraulic conductivity was increased by 5 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. We investaged the difference of the characteristics of the EDZs on the basis of competence factor and ductility index. As a result, it was estimated that an extent of an EDZ decreases with decrease of competence factor; a hydraulic conductivity in an EDZ increases with decrease of ductility index.
Nakashima, Hiroyoshi*; Koyama, Tomofumi*; Tatsuta, Keisuke*; Katayama, Tatsuo*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
In this study, we created the three dimensional model based on equivalent continuum approach to study the penetration length and enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass. The developed numerical model was applied to the in situ grout injection conducted in the ventilation shaft of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. We evaluated the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass after the grout operation. As a result, hydraulic conductivity of the highly permeable fault was decreased in 4 orders of magnitude, which is almost consistent with the in situ hydraulic conductivity obtained from in situ Luegeon test after the grout injection. Thus the simulation method described in this paper can be applied to the evaluation of the efficiency of in situ grout injection.
Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Doi, Daisuke; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(12), p.2098 - 2107, 2016/12
A sodium concrete reaction (SCR) is one of the important phenomena to cause the structural concrete ablation and the release of H gas in the case of sever accident of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this study, the long-time SCR test had been carried out to investigate the self-termination mechanism. The results showed the SCR terminated even if the enough amount of Na remained on the concrete. The quantitative data were collected on the SCR terminating such as temperature and H generation. The reaction products, which became the small solids in liquid Na were transferred with slurry state by generated H bubbles. Though the Na transfers actively and ablated the concrete surface with the high H generation rate, the mass exchange coefficient defined as decreased and the reaction products settled gradually with decreasing the H generation rate. Therefore, the Na concentration decreased at the reaction front and resulted in the SCR terminating naturally.