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論文

Evidence for weak spin-orbit interaction experienced by Cooper pairs in the spin-triplet superconductor UPt$$_3$$; $$^{195}$$Pt-NMR study

青山 泰介*; 小手川 恒*; 木村 憲彰*; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦*; 藤 秀樹*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 88(6), p.064706_1 - 064706_7, 2019/06

$$^{195}$$Pt-NMR measurements under magnetic field ($$H$$) parallel to the $$c$$-axis in the vicinity of the upper critical field $$H_{rm c2}$$ have been carried out on the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt$$_3$$. The quasiparticle spin susceptibility was obtained from the measurements. The field dependence of the susceptibility suggests that the $$d$$-vector freely rotates in magnetic field. It is therefore concluded that spin-orbit interaction, which confines the direction of the $$d$$-vector with respect to the crystal axis, is weak in UPt$$_3$$.

論文

Anisotropic magnetic fluctuations in ferromagnetic superconductor UGe$$_2$$; $$^{73}$$Ge-NQR study at ambient pressure

野間 雄一郎*; 小手川 恒*; 久保 徹郎*; 藤 秀樹*; 播磨 尚朝*; 芳賀 芳範; 山本 悦嗣; 大貫 惇睦*; 伊藤 公平*; Haller, E. E.*; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(3), p.033704_1 - 033704_5, 2018/03

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:49.95(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

$$^{73}$$Ge nuclear quadrupole resonance study of ferromagnetic superconductor UGe$$_2$$ is reported. Detailed analyses successfully assigned crystallographic sites of Ge atoms. The measurement of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate revealed highly anisotropic magnetic fluctuations.

論文

Breeding of high ethanol producing yeast by screening from mutant library

荻野 千秋*; Kahar, P.*; Lee, J. M.*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊; 近藤 昭彦*

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 105, 2016/02

Ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass with yeast is very important. However, in common sense, there are several chemical inhibitors for yeast from hydrolyzed biomass. Therefore, screening of yeast strain, possessing the tolerance properties against these chemical inhibitors, should be found from nature resources or mutant libraries. To overcome the problem, we have screened yeast strains tolerant to many chemical inhibitors contained in bagasse sugar lysate (BSL) at high temperature (35 $$^{circ}$$C) from 1500 strains out of national bio-resource center yeast collection. We found that F118 strain could grow and ferment BSL and produce ethanol. For increasing of the yield and ethanol fermentation efficiency of F118 strain, the adaptation of F118 strain to high temperature was conducted, followed by carbon ion beam irradiation. Consequently, we have successfully obtained F118S88 strain as a good candidate for ethanol production from BSL at high temperature.

論文

Screening of yeast strain for ethanol fermentation after carbon ion beam irradiation

荻野 千秋*; 山田 良祐*; 佐藤 勝也; 大野 豊

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 122, 2015/03

Ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass with yeast is very important. However, in common sense, there are several chemical inhibitors for yeast from hydrolyzed biomass. Therefore, screening of yeast strain, possessing the tolerance properties against these chemical inhibitors, should be found from nature resources or mutant libraries. In this research, by carbon ion beam irradiation, the screening of candidate yeast strains was performed. Compared with wild type strain, the ethanol production yield was improved in the case of selected strain. It was assumed that the carbon ion beam irradiation could be influence to yeast cell, and improve the metabolic pathway. In future, by using this selected yeast, the ethanol fermentation from hydrolyzed biomass with high efficiency would be performed.

論文

Acceleration of highly charged GeV Fe ions from a low-Z substrate by intense femtosecond laser

西内 満美子; 榊 泰直; Esirkepov, T. Z.; 西尾 勝久; Pikuz, T.*; Faenov, A.*; Skobelev, I. Yu.*; Orlandi, R.; 佐甲 博之; Pirozhkov, A. S.; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 22(3), p.033107_1 - 033107_8, 2015/03

 被引用回数:38 パーセンタイル:1.6(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

200TWの超高強度レーザーパルスをミクロンメートルのアルミの薄膜に鉄の不純物を混ぜたターゲットに照射することで、ほぼフルストリップに近い鉄のイオンが0.9GeVで加速された。低エミッタンスで、重いイオンのビームが高いQ/Mで得られることは、いろいろな分野への応用が考えられ、例えば、既存加速器技術との融合によってコンパクトなRIイオン源の開発が考えられる。

論文

Numerical evaluation of a multiple soil barrier system preventing water infiltration

高山 裕介*; 生田 勇輝*; 飯塚 敦*; 河井 克之*; 瀧 富弘; 坂尾 亮太; 市川 康明*

Unsaturated Soils; Research & Applications, p.659 - 665, 2014/06

礫層,砂層とベントナイト混合土層からなる不飽和の多重覆土層では、ベントナイト混合土層の非常に低い透水性だけでなく、異なる保水能力を有する砂層-礫層間のキャピラリーバリアにより水の浸入を防止することが期待される。数値シミュレーションでは、植生層(まさ土), 上部フィルタ層(砂), 排水層(礫), 下部フィルタ層(まさ土), ベントナイト混合層(ベントナイト及びまさ土)からなる幅10m, 厚さ1.5mの不飽和の多重覆土層を考えており、これらの覆土層は5%の勾配で設置しているものとして飽和/不飽和、水/土連成の有限要素法を用いて多重覆土層による降雨浸透抑制の評価を行った。その結果、バリアシステムの長期性能を評価するうえでキャピラリーバリアが重要であり、また、本論文で検討した遮水機能は過去の最大降雨強度に対しても機能することを確認することができた。

論文

A Synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopic study on the oxidation of Si in diamond-like carbon film by hyperthermal O-atom beam

横田 久美子*; 田川 雅人*; 吉越 章隆; 寺岡 有殿

Journal of Surface Analysis, 20(3), p.221 - 225, 2014/03

Oxidation reaction efficiency of the embedded Si atoms in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was studied with a combination of the broad O-atom beam, high-speed chopper wheel and synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES). The high-speed chopper wheel converted the translational energy distribution of O-atom into spatial distribution on the DLC surface. High spatial and energy resolutions of SR-PES allow studying the difference in oxidation states of Si atoms in different translational energies. It was confirmed that the SiO$$_{2}$$ was formed by the high-energy collision conditions of O-atoms, whereas sub-oxides are formed with the low-energy collisions. The efficiency of SiO$$_{2}$$ formation at 9 eV-collision is evaluated to be 4 times greater than that at 2 eV-collision.

論文

Pressure evolution of the metamagnetic transition in UCoAl As measured using $$^{59}$$Co NMR

小手川 恒*; 野原 弘貴*; 藤 秀樹*; 松田 達磨; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; Fisk, Z.; 大貫 惇睦; 青木 大*; Flouquet, J.*

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 63(3), p.341 - 344, 2013/08

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:84.55(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

NMR measurements under pressure were preformed on the quantum critical endpoint (QCEP) of the metamagnetic transition in UCoAl. $$^{59}$$Co-NMR sensitively detects the evolution of the internal field caused by applying the external field. The loss of the NMR signal on approaching the QCEP indicates the development of spin fluctuations.

論文

Hydrogen removal from hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films by exposure to photon and energetic atomic oxygen beams

横田 久美子*; 田川 雅人*; 松本 康司*; 古山 雄一*; 北村 晃*; 神田 一浩*; 戸出 真由美; 吉越 章隆; 寺岡 有殿

Protection of Materials and Structures from the Space Environment; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, Vol.32, p.531 - 539, 2012/08

Stability of hydrogen in Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film under simulated space environment, i.e., hyperthermal atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray exposures has been studied. Hydrogen in DLC was released by low-energy atomic oxygen beam exposure, whereas the gasification reaction of carbon atom needed collision energy above 3 eV. The desorption process in the deep region required a higher collision energy. The density of hydrogen decreased 11% by atomic oxygen exposure, and was independent of the collision energy. Photon exposure also releases hydrogen from DLC. High-energy photons in soft X-ray promote the hydrogen desorption even from deeper region with high efficiency. It was considered that soft X-ray could release bonded hydrogen which is not released by VUV or atomic oxygen exposures.

論文

Survivability of silicon-doped diamond-like carbon films in energetic atomic/molecular oxygen beam environments

田川 雅人*; 岸田 和博*; 横田 久美子*; 松本 康司*; 吉越 章隆; 寺岡 有殿; Zhang, J.*; Minton, T. K.*

Protection of Materials and Structures from the Space Environment; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, Vol.32, p.547 - 555, 2012/08

Volatile products were measured from two types of diamond-like carbon films under the hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) beam bombardment. It was clearly observed that CO and CO$$_{2}$$ were formed at the conventional hydrogenated DLC surface by hyperthermal AO beam exposure. Desorption rates of CO and CO$$_{2}$$ are constant with AO fluence which reflects the constant erosion rate of the hydrogenated DLC. In contrast, Si-doped DLC shows decrease in amount of CO and CO$$_{2}$$ with increasing AO fluence. Oxidation of Si atoms at the DLC surface was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This is the evidence that SiO$$_{2}$$ film formed at the DLC surface could prevent AO reaction with C atoms in DLC which leads to loss of DLC. Since a self-healing capability can be expected on Si-doped DLC, metal doping is a promising technology for space application of DLC.

論文

Quasi-monochromatic pencil beam of laser-driven protons generated using a conical cavity target holder

西内 満美子; Pirozhkov, A. S.; 榊 泰直; 小倉 浩一; Esirkepov, T. Z.; 谷本 壮; 金崎 真聡; 余語 覚文; 堀 利彦; 匂坂 明人; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 19(3), p.030706_1 - 030706_4, 2012/03

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:63.68(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

2J 60fsのチタンサファイアレーザー光を、コニカル形状を持ったターゲットホルダに装着したターゲットに照射することによって、7MeVのコリメートされた陽子線($$10^6$$個/spot)を生成することに成功した。ターゲットホルダ上に陽子に前駆して発生する電子によって生成される電場が陽子線の軌道を変え、エネルギー選択をも行うと考えられる。

論文

Study on selective adsorption of deuterium on boron nitride using photon-stimulated ion-desorption

Koswattage, K.; 下山 巖; 馬場 祐治; 関口 哲弘; 中川 和道*

Applied Surface Science, 258(4), p.1561 - 1564, 2011/12

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:79.14(Chemistry, Physical)

窒化ホウ素(BN)からなるナノチューブは、カーボンナノチューブよりも優れた水素吸蔵能を持つ可能性が指摘されているため水素吸蔵材として興味深い候補であるが、水素吸着挙動については不明な点が多い。中でも最も基本的な疑問の一つに吸着サイト依存性がある。水素原子がB, Nサイトのどちらかに吸着するのか、それとも選択性を持たないのかについては多くの理論研究があるが矛盾する結果が報告されており、実験的な検証はほとんど行われていない。そこで本研究でわれわれは六方晶BN薄膜を直径無限大のナノチューブのモデル材料とみなし、光刺激イオン脱離分光法による水素の直接観測実験を行った。内殻励起後のイオン脱離はサイト選択的であるため、脱離水素イオンを検出することで水素の直接観測とサイト選択的測定の両立が期待できる。実験では不純物由来の水素と区別するため重水素原子を用いた。重水素化したBN薄膜にB及びNの吸収端領域のX線を照射し、検出されたD$$^{+}$$イオンの脱離収率スペクトルを測定した。B内殻励起ではD$$^{+}$$脱離収率$$eta$$が吸収端で明瞭に増加したが、N吸収端では$$eta$$がほぼ一定な値を示した。この結果はBサイトへの優先的吸着を示唆している。

論文

中性子ラジオグラフィによるダイナミックCTシステムの開発と燃料電池スタック内水分布の連続三次元可視化

村川 英樹*; 橋本 迪矩*; 杉本 勝美*; 浅野 等*; 竹中 信幸*; 持木 幸一*; 安田 良

日本機械学会論文集,B, 77(784), p.2255 - 2262, 2011/12

A dynamic CT system was developed for visualization of consecutive three-dimensional water behavior in a PEFC stack for neutron radiography. The system is composed of a neutron image intensifier and a C-MOS high speed videocamera. An operating stack with three cells based on the Japan Automobile Research Institute standard was visualized using the neutron radiography system at a research reactor JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The dynamic water behavior in channels in the operating PEFC stack was clearly visualized every 15 seconds by using the system. The water amount in each cell was evaluated by the CT reconstructed images. It was shown that a cell voltage decreased gradually when the water increased and increased rapidly when the water was evacuated. It was estimated that the power generation stopped when the channel of a cell was partly filled with the water because the air supply was blocked to a cell in the stack.

論文

Strong longitudinal magnetic fluctuations near critical end point in UCoAl; A $$^{59}$$Co-NMR study

野原 弘貴*; 小手川 恒*; 藤 秀樹*; 松田 達磨; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範; Fisk, Z.; 大貫 惇睦; 青木 大*; Flouquet, J.*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(9), p.093707_1 - 093707_4, 2011/09

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:27.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We report $$^{59}$$Co-NMR measurements in UCoAl where metamagnetism occurs owing to the enhancement of ferromagnetism by a magnetic field. The metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic (PM) state to a ferromagnetic state is a first-order transition at low temperatures, but it changes to a crossover at high temperatures on crossing the critical end point (CEP) at $$T_{rm CEP}$$ $$sim$$ 12K. The contrasting behavior between the relaxation rates $$1/T_1$$ and $$1/T_2$$ suggests that the longitudinal magnetic fluctuation of the U moments is strongly enhanced, especially near the CEP.

論文

Measurements of water distribution in through-plane direction of PEFC by using neutron radiography

村川 英樹*; 和田 大裕*; 杉本 勝美*; 浅野 等*; 竹中 信幸*; 安田 良

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 651(1), p.286 - 289, 2011/09

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:30.67(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Hydrogen gas and air are supplied to a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Protons pass through the electrolyte membrane, and combine with oxygen to form water in the cathode reaction site. The generated water must be supplied appropriately to the membrane for proton conduction. On the other hand, the generated water may affect the fuel cell performances because of the blocking of oxygen from reaching the cathode reaction site. Therefore, water management in the PEFC is important, and water distribution during the operation in the through-plane direction has been of wide concern. In order to obtain the water distributions in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and a gas diffusion layer (GDL), a borescope system was newly employed using neutron radiography. The system could obtain the water distribution in the MEA and the GDL, and pixel size of 6.5 micron was achieved. Furthermore, the system was applied for a tilted converter system. The pixel of 1.0 micron at angle of 81 degrees was achieved, and improvement of the spatial resolution was confirmed.

論文

Visualization of dynamic 3-D water behavior in polymer electrolyte fuel cell by using neutron image intensifier

竹中 信幸*; 浅野 等*; 杉本 勝美*; 村川 英樹*; 橋本 迪矩*; 進藤 徳高*; 持木 幸一*; 安田 良

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 651(1), p.277 - 281, 2011/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:57.93(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Visualization of dynamic three-dimensional water behavior in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack was carried out by neutron CT using a neutron image intensifier. The neutron radiography system at JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency was used. An operating stack with three cells based on Japan Automobile Research Institute standard was visualized. A consecutive CT reconstruction method by rotating the fuel stack continuously was developed using a neutron image intensifier and a C-MOS high speed video camera. The dynamic water behavior in channels in the operating PEFC stack was clearly visualized in 15 s intervals by the present dynamic neutron CT system.

論文

Evaluation of water distribution in a small-sized PEFC by neutron radiography

安田 良; 塩澤 方浩*; 片桐 政樹*; 竹中 信幸*; 酒井 卓郎; 林田 洋寿; 松林 政仁

電気化学及び工業物理化学, 79(8), p.614 - 619, 2011/08

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:96.44(Electrochemistry)

Neutron radiography is a useful tool for visualization of water distribution in fuel cells. In this study, we prepared a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system and small-sized fuel cell, and observed the through-plane water distribution in the fuel cell after operation. Fuel cell operations were carried out while varying the gas flow rate in the constant current mode. In low flow rate conditions, voltage decreased as operation time increased, and dropped below 0.2 V at 7.5 min. In neutron images obtained after fuel cell operation, water distribution was observed around the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) at the beginning of the operation and expanded over time to the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and channel on the cathode side. In higher flow rate conditions, fuel cell operation was more stable than in the low flow rate conditions. Neutron imaging results suggest that stable fuel cell operation is attributable to water discharge due to expulsion by the gas flow.

論文

High field magnetoresistance and de Haas-van Alphen effect in LaRu$$_2$$Al$$_{10}$$

迫田 將仁*; 田中 修平*; 松岡 英一*; 菅原 仁*; 播磨 尚朝*; 本多 史憲*; 摂待 力生*; 大貫 惇睦; 松田 達磨; 芳賀 芳範

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(8), p.084716_1 - 084716_5, 2011/08

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:45.48(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Magnetoresistance and de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect were studied to investigate Fermi surface topology in LaRu$$_2$$Al$$_{10}$$. From the positive magnetoresistance in a wide angular region, this compound is regarded as a compensated metal. On the other hand, dHvA measurement shows several Fermi surface branches with a cyclotron effective mass close to the electron rest mass. The Fermi surface topology was well explained by the band calculations.

論文

Selective adsorption of atomic hydrogen on a $$h$$-BN thin film

Koswattage, K.; 下山 巖; 馬場 祐治; 関口 哲弘; 中川 和道*

Journal of Chemical Physics, 135(1), p.014706_1 - 014706_12, 2011/07

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:38.85(Chemistry, Physical)

炭素同様ナノチューブ構造をとる窒化ホウ素(BN)は水素吸蔵材料として注目されている材料である。理論的には炭素材料よりも優れた水素吸着特性を持つとの報告もあるが、実験的な検証が十分行われていない。根本的な物性の一つである吸着サイト選択性を調べるためわれわれは六角網面を基調としたBNナノ材料のモデル系として六方晶BN薄膜に対して重水素原子を吸着させ、X線吸収分光法(NEXAFS)とX線分光法(XPS)を観測した。Ni(111)基板上にCVD法で作成したBN薄膜に対してWフィラメントで解離させた原子状重水素を反応させ、反応前後におけるNEXAFSとXPSスペクトルを測定した。その結果、NEXAFSスペクトルはB吸収端で水素との反応後面直成分の軌道ベクトルを持つ準位に大きな変化が生じたのに対し、N吸収端ではほとんど変化を示さなかった。また、XPSスペクトルはB1sピークに新しい成分が観測された。われわれは密度汎関数法であるDVX$$alpha$$分子軌道計算によりこれらのスペクトル変化を解析し、BN薄膜のBサイトに選択的に重水素が選択的に吸着したモデルによって実験結果を説明できることを明らかにした。

論文

$$^9$$Be-NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate in heavy-fermion superconductor UBe$$_{13}$$

森田 恭平*; 原 悠大*; 坂野 準哉*; 小手川 恒*; 藤 秀樹*; 芳賀 芳範; 大貫 惇睦

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 80(Suppl.A), p.SA099_1 - SA099_3, 2011/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:86.08(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been carried out for a single crystal UBe$$_{13}$$ superconductor. In the normal state above the superconducting transition temperature, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate obey $$sqrt{T}$$, suggesting the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation which might be responsible for the unconventional superconductivity.

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