Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10
There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived C) and stable carbon (C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for C (and stable nitrogen isotope, N) and C analyses; and C, N, and C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.
Kokusen, Junya; Akasaka, Shingo*; Shimizu, Osamu; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Honda, Junichi; Harada, Katsuya; Okamoto, Hisato
JAEA-Technology 2020-011, 70 Pages, 2020/10
The Uranium Enrichment Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was constructed in 1972 for the purpose of uranium enrichment research. The smoke emitting accident on 1989 and the fire accident on 1997 had been happened in this facility. The research on uranium enrichment was completed in JFY1998. The decommissioning work was started including the transfer of the nuclear fuel material to the other facility in JFY2012. The decommissioning work was completed in JFY2019 which are consisting of removing the hood, dismantlement of wall and ceiling with contamination caused by fire accident. The releasing the controlled area was performed after the confirmation of any contamination is not remained in the target area. The radioactive waste was generated while decommissioning, burnable and non-flammable are 1.7t and 69.5t respectively. The Laboratory will be used as a general facility for cold experiments.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; et al.
JAEA-Research 2020-011, 67 Pages, 2020/10
This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 5th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
Misono, Toshiharu; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shiribiki, Takehiko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Urabe, Yoshimi*
JAEA-Research 2020-008, 166 Pages, 2020/10
After the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), marine monitoring survey on radioactive substances have been conducted with financially supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency from FY2019. Results obtain in the project in FY2019 are presented in this report. Based on scientific grounds, the concept necessary for "progress of sea area monitoring" was arranged for the future medium- to long-term investigation of radiocesium concentrations. As basic information of survey frequency revise, a seabed topography and sediment distribution survey was conducted, and an attempt was made to understand the relationship between the seabed topography and the grain size distribution of bottom sediment. A columnar core sample was collected in the coastal area and analyzed for radioactive cesium concentration. In order to understand the dynamics of radioactive cesium contained in suspended matter flowing in from a river, suspended solids was collected using a sediment trap and the concentration of radioactive cesium was measured. We re-analyzed the towed monitoring data that had been implemented since 2013, and tried to improve the accuracy of the radioactive cesium distribution estimation map in the coastal area.
Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.
JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10
The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.
Fukuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yusuke; Murakami, Hiroaki; Amano, Yuki; Aosai, Daisuke*; Hara, Naohiro*
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-012, 80 Pages, 2020/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the influence of excavation and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry and microbiology obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2019. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method and analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described.
Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-010, 112 Pages, 2020/10
The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), the project is being carried out under the Phase III. The main goals of the MIU Project from Phase I to Phase III are: to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a base of engineering for deep underground application. One of the Phase III goals is to construct geological environment models and grasp deep geological changes when expanding the research gallery by research and investigations using research galleries. The long term hydro-pressure monitoring has been continued to achieve the Phase III goals. Furthermore, these monitoring were ceased at the end of FY2019 due to the completion of the MIU project. This report describes the results of the long term hydro-pressure monitoring from April 2017 to March 2020.
Ono, Masato; Hanawa, Yoshio; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Arashi; Sugaya, Naoto; Iigaki, Kazuhiko
JAEA-Technology 2020-010, 14 Pages, 2020/09
In response to new standard for regulating research and test reactor which is enforced December 18, 2013, it was carried out assessment of the probability of aircraft crashing for HTTR. According to assessment method provided in the Assessment Criteria of the Probability of Aircraft Crashing on Commercial Power Reactor Facilities, assessment was conducted targeting reactor building, spent fuel storage building and cooling tower. As a result, it was confirmed that the probability was 5.9810, which is lower than the assessment criteria 10.
Nishiyama, Yutaka; Iwai, Masaki; Chiba, Yusuke; Tsubaki, Hirohiko; Ono, Hayato*; Hayasaka, Toshiro*; Hanyu, Toshinori*
JAEA-Technology 2020-007, 18 Pages, 2020/09
Maintenance and Operation Section for Remote Control Equipment in Naraha Center for Remote Control Technology Development is the main part of the nuclear emergency response team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in full-scale operation starts on the 1st of April, 2020. The section needs to develop equipment for JAEA nuclear emergency. Because of dealing the full-scale operation, the section designed and produced two sets of Multi-joint Manipulator or (for Opening Doors) against Nuclear Disaster in order to put them on two crawler robots in 2018 fiscal year. And the section also designed and produced a Crawler Robot for Opening and Closing Manual Valves in 2019 fiscal year. This report shows two sets of Multi-Joint Manipulator (for Opening Doors) and a Crawler Robot for Opening and Closing Manual Valves designed and produced by Maintenance and Operation Section for Remote Control Equipment in 2018 and 2019 fiscal year.
Togawa, Orihiko; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Okuno, Hiroshi
JAEA-Review 2020-017, 36 Pages, 2020/09
In 2010, the government of Japan joined the Response and Assistance Network (RANET) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in order to contribute to offering international assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. At that occasion, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was registered as the National Assistance Capability (NAC) having resources capable of the External Based Support (EBS) in the following seven areas: (1) aerial survey, (2) radiation monitoring, (3) environmental measurements, (4) assessment and advice, (5) internal dose assessment, (6) bioassay and (7) dose reconstruction. After the registration, three inquiries were directed to the JAEA about a possibility of its support. However, the JAEA's assistance has not eventually been realized. On the other hand, the JAEA participated almost every year in the international Convention Exercise (ConvEx) carried out by the IAEA in connection with RANET. This report describes an outline of the RANET and related activities of the JAEA for RANET registration and participation in the ConvEx.
Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center
JAEA-Review 2020-016, 67 Pages, 2020/09
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is one of the designated public institutions, which is an agency dealing with an emergency situation in cooperation with the Japanese and local governments under the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act and under the Armed Attack Situation Response Law. JAEA has, therefore, responsibilities of providing technical assistances to the Japanese and local governments in case of nuclear or radiological emergencies based on these Acts. To fulfill the assistances, the JAEA has prepared the Nuclear Emergency Support Measures Regulation, Disaster Prevention Work Plan and Civil Protection Work Plan. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) is the main center of the technical assistance in case of emergency, and dispatches experts of JAEA, supplies equipment and materials and gives technical advice and information, to the Japanese and local governments for emergency based on the regulation and plans. In normal time, the NEAT provides the technical assistances such as the exercises and training courses concerning the nuclear preparedness and response to the JAEA experts and also to emergency responders including the Japanese and local government officers. This report introduces the results of activities in Japanese Fiscal Year 2019, conducted by NEAT in accordance with the third medium and long-term plan for the period from Japanese Fiscal Year 2015 to 2021.
Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi
JAEA-Review 2020-015, 66 Pages, 2020/09
The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculated from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2019 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.
JAEA-Review 2020-014, 63 Pages, 2020/09
J-PARC Center has been promoting several public relations activities to appeal the cutting-edge research programs and their outputs to the citizen, especially in Ibaraki prefecture and Tokai village. The Public Relations Section put weight to outreach events as the best tool for this purpose, such as site tour, open house, and summer school. Here the outreach activities are summarized mainly from FY2012 to FY2019.
Li, Y.; Hirota, Takatoshi*; Itabashi, Yu*; Yamamoto, Masato*; Kanto, Yasuhiro*; Suzuki, Masahide*; Miyamoto, Yuhei*
JAEA-Review 2020-011, 130 Pages, 2020/09
For the improvement of the structural integrity assessment methodology on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL has been developed and improved in Japan Atomic Energy Agency based on the latest knowledge. The PASCAL code evaluates the failure probabilities and frequencies of Japanese RPVs under transient events such as pressure thermal shock considering neutron irradiation embrittlement. In order to confirm the reliability of the PASCAL as a domestic standard code and to promote the application of PFM on the domestic structural integrity assessments of RPVs, it is important to perform verification activities, and summarize the verification processes and results as a document. On the basis of these backgrounds, we established a working group, composed of experts on this field besides the developers, on the verification of the PASCAL module and the source program of PASCAL was released to the members of working group. This report summarizes the activities of the working group on the verification of PASCAL in FY2016 and FY2017.
JAEA-Review 2020-006, 261 Pages, 2020/09
A literature review was conducted on the increase in surface area of vitrified products of HLW due to the fracturing caused by cooling during glass pouring process and by mechanical impact, from the perspective of a parameter of the radionuclide release model in the performance assessment of geological disposal system studied overseas. The review was focused on the value of surface area increase factor set as a parameter in the model, the experimental work to evaluate an increase in surface area, and how the parameters on surface area were determined based on the experimental results. The surface area obtained from the experiments executed in Japan was also discussed in comparison with the overseas studies. On the basis of the investigation, the effects of various conditions on the surface area were studied, such as a diameter of vitrified product, cooling condition during and after the glass pouring, impact on vitrified products during their handling, environment after the closure of disposal facility, and others. The causes of fracturing are associated with the phenomena or events in the waste management process such as production, transport, storage, and disposal. The surface area increase factors set in the nuclide release model of the glass and their bases were reviewed. In addition, the measured values and the experimental methods for surface increase factors published so far were compared. Accordingly, the methods for measuring surface area as the bases were identified for these factors set in the models. The causes of fracturing and features of these factors were studied with respect to the relation with the waste management process. The results from the review and assessment can contribute to the expanding the knowledge for the conservative and realistic application of these factors to performance assessment, and to the developing and upgrading of safety case as a consequence.
Nagai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Hirona*; Ota, Toshiaki*; Kojima, Kazuo*; Inose, Takehiko*; Sato, Seiichi*; Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi*
JAEA-Research 2020-009, 48 Pages, 2020/09
The local structure of glass-forming elements and waste elements in waste glass varies with its chemical composition. In this study, borosilicate glass frit and simulated waste glass samples were prepared and the local structure and chemical state regarding boron (B), oxygen (O), and waste elements of cerium (Ce), cesium (Cs) were estimated by using XAFS measurement in soft X-ray region. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of prepared glass frit and simulated waste glass samples: (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp structure (BO) tends to increase with increasing NaO content in glass samples. (2) The height of a pre-edge which appears by K-edge XANES spectrum of O is so high that the Fe content in glass samples. Following results were obtained by XAFS measurements of simulated waste glass samples after immersion test to investigate long chemical stability. (1) The existence ratio of four coordinate sp structure (BO) increases by immersion test. (2) Ce which exists in the surface layer is oxidized by immersion test, and much of Cs in surface layer is lost after leach testing. Even if the glass frit form (fiber cartridge or beads) and manufacturing method were changed and a glass sample of the similar chemical composition was prepared, these observed Raman spectra of samples were different.
Morita, Yasuji; Fukushima, Masahiro; Kashima, Takao*; Tsubata, Yasuhiro
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-013, 38 Pages, 2020/09
Critical Masses of Cm, Am and the mixture were calculated in metal-water mixtures with water reflector as a basic data for criticality safety assessment of minor actinide separation process. In the mixture of Cm-244 and Cm-245, higher ratio of Cm-245 gives smaller critical mass, but the amount of Cm-245 in the critical mass can be obtained by concentration of Cm-245 in the Cm mixture without depending on the Cm-245 ratio. Critical mass of Cm isotope mixture with 30% Cm-245 was smaller than that of Pu isotope mixture in the practical reprocessing (71% Pu-239 + 17% Pu-240 + 12% Pu-241). When Cm is separated from other element including Am and the solution is concentrated, measure for the critical accident has to be taken. Critical mass of Am-242m is smaller than that of Cm-245, but the ratio of Am-242m in the Am contained in practical spent fuel is small enough, about several percent, and therefore the critical accident by Am does not have to be considered. That by the mixture of Am and Cm does not either.
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-009, 98 Pages, 2020/09
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed a low alkaline cement, named as HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silicafume Cement), in order to decrease the effect on geological environment of cementitious material. HFSC was used experimentally as the shotcrete (140m, 250m and 350m depth gallery) and lining concrete (GL-374m to GL-380m of east access shaft) in construction part of Horonobe URL. In order to evaluate the effect of HFSC on the surrounding rock and groundwater, concrete and rock cores were periodically sampled from the site where the in-situ construction test was conducted, and various analyzes were conducted. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used for part of 140m depth gallery, and the same analysis as HFSC was conducted, in order to compare the effect of OPC and HFSC. This report summarizes the results of analyzes conducted on core samples from 2009 to 2018.
Takai, Shizuka; Kimura, Hideo*; Uchikoshi, Emiko*; Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-007, 174 Pages, 2020/09
The MIG2DF computer code is a computer program that simulates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in porous media for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The original version of MIG2DF was released in 1992. The original code employs a two-dimensional (vertical or horizontal cross-section, or an axisymmetric configuration) finite-element method to approximate the governing equations for density-dependent saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Meanwhile, for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, landscape evolution such as uplift and erosion needs to be assessed as a long-term geological and climate events, considering site conditions. In coastal areas, the impact to groundwater flow by change of salinity distribution to sea level change also needs to be considered. To deal with these events in the assessment, we have revised the original version of MIG2DF and developed the external program which enables MIG2DF to consider unsteady landscape evolution. In these developments, this report describes an upgrade of MIG2DF (Version 2) and presents the configuration, equations, methods, and verification. This reports also give the explanation external programs of MIG2DF: PASS-TRAC (the particle tracking code), PASS-PRE (the code for dataset preparation), and PASS-POST (the post-processing visualization system).
Sugaya, Naoto; Okada, Yuji; Nishimura, Arashi; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuaki; Kimura, Akihiro; Hanawa, Yoshio; Nemoto, Hiroyoshi
JAEA-Testing 2020-004, 67 Pages, 2020/08
In the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), the leakage accidents of radioactive waste liquid were occurred from the tanks and pipes of the liquid waste disposal facility in the JMTR tank-yard building in JFY2014. In order to respond to the accident, the tanks and pipes were replaced from JFY2016 to 2019. On the other hand, a lot of cracks were occurred on the concreate wall of the tank-yard building when the frame structure supports were fixed to the concrete wall in the replacement work. Thus, it is necessary to repair the concreate wall of the tank-yard building. Especially, some cracks with swelling (cone-shaped fracture) were raised around some anchor bolts (the post-installed chemical anchor bolts) fixed the frame structure supports. The repairing method for the cone-shaped fracture of the concrete wall is standardized, but there was no reference value of tensile strength for the validation of the post-installed chemical anchor bolts after the repairing method. In this report, the repairing method was selected for the cone-shaped fracture on the concreate wall and the reference value of tensile strength for the validation of the post-installed chemical anchor bolts by this repairing method. The mock-ups for repairing cone-shaped fracture were fabricated by the selected repairing method and the tensile tests of the post-installed chemical anchor bolts were performed. From the results, the validation of the repairing method was obtained in this test and it was obvious the repairing of cone-shaped fracture is preferable method for the concreate wall of the JMTR tank-yard building.