Sugawara, Takanori; Moriguchi, Daisuke*; Ban, Yasutoshi; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Takano, Masahide; Nishihara, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2021-008, 63 Pages, 2021/10
This study aims to perform the neutronics calculations for accelerator-driven system (ADS) with a new fuel composition based on the SELECT process developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency because the previous studies had used the ideal MA (minor actinide) fuel composition without uranium and rare earth elements. Through the neutronics calculations, it is shown that two calculation cases, with/without neptunium, satisfy the design criteria. Although the new fuel composition includes uranium and rare earth elements, the ADS core with the new fuel composition is feasible and consistent with the partitioning and transmutation (P&T) cycle. Based on the new fuel composition, the heat removal during fuel powder storage and fuel assembly assembling is evaluated. For the fuel powder storage, it is found that a cylindrical tube container with a length of 500 [mm] and a diameter of 11 - 21 [mm] should be stored under water. For the fuel assembly assembling, CFD analysis indicates that the cladding tube temperature would satisfy the criterion if the inlet velocity of air is larger than 0.5 [m/s]. Through these studies, the new fuel composition which is consistent with the P&T cycle is obtained and the heat removal with the latest conditions is investigated. It is also shown that the new fuel composition can be practically handled with respect to heat generation, which is one of the most difficult points in handling MA fuel.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Akiomi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; et al.
JAEA-Research 2021-007, 65 Pages, 2021/10
This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 6th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
Sakai, Toshihiro; Hayano, Akira
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-010, 243 Pages, 2021/10
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "R&D on Geological Disposal", and proceeds in three overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigation", "Phase II: Construction" and "Phase III: Operation". The geological survey has been carried out at the shafts and the galleries in the Phase II. The geological survey was carried out during the excavation cycle, and the data were obtained for each an excavation cross section. This report shows the data which the individual geological data were integrated for the geological survey at the shafts and the galleries from the surface to a depth of 380m.
Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Mitsui, Wataru*; Yamamoto, Yudai*; Nakagawa, Kyoichi*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2021/09
As a summer holiday practical training 2020, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the downsizing of reactor core were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a 1.6 m radius reactor core, containing 54 (183 layers) fuel blocks with 20% enrichment of U, and BeO neutron reflector, could operate continuously for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW. Number of fuel blocks of this compact core is 36% of the HTTR core. As a next step, the further downsizing of core by changing materials of the fuel block will be studied.
Ikeda, Reiji*; Ho, H. Q.; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nakano, Yumi*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Fujimoto, Nozomu*
JAEA-Technology 2021-015, 32 Pages, 2021/09
Burnup calculation of the HTTR considering temperature distribution and detailed burning regions was carried out using MVP-BURN code. The results show that the difference in k, as well as the difference in average density of some main isotopes, is insignificant between the cases of uniform temperature and detailed temperature distribution. However, the difference in local density is noticeable, being 6% and 8% for U and Pu, respectively, and even 30% for the burnable poison B. Regarding the division of burning regions to more detail, the change of k is also small of 0.6%k/k or less. The small burning region gives a detailed distribution of isotopes such as U, Pu, and B. As a result, the effect of graphite reflector and the burnup behavior could be evaluated more clearly compared with the previous study.
Tochio, Daisuke; Nagasumi, Satoru; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ono, Masato; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Uesaka, Takahiro; Watanabe, Shuji; Saito, Kenji
JAEA-Technology 2021-014, 80 Pages, 2021/09
In response to the new regulatory standards established in response to the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011, measures and impact assessments related to internal flooding at HTTR were carried out. In assessing the impact, considering the characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, flooding due to assumed damage to piping and equipment, flooding due to water discharge from the system installed to prevent the spread of fire, and flooding due to damage to piping and equipment due to an earthquake. The effects of submersion, flooding, and flooding due to steam were evaluated for each of them. The impact of the overflow of liquids containing radioactive materials outside the radiation-controlled area was also evaluated. As a result, it was confirmed that flooding generated at HTTR does not affect the safety function of the reactor facility by taking measures.
Covariance Data Utilization and Promotion Working Group, JENDL Committee
JAEA-Review 2021-014, 139 Pages, 2021/09
The Covariance Data Utilization and Promotion Working Group organized in the JENDL committee has worked for three years to study the following five issues: (1) to identify uncertainties which have not yet been quantified or which are too difficult to be quantified, (2) to identify uncertainties which have been quantified, but whose reasonable bases are too weak, (3) to propose realistic methods to assure the reliability of the covariance data, (4) to propose actions which should be taken in the fields of nuclear data measurement, evaluation and application to promote the covariance data utilization, and (5) to make a recommendation how the covariance data are treated and positioned in Japanese evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL. This final report summarizes the outcomes of this working group. This report is organized as follows. First, the fundamental information/issues on the nuclear data uncertainties are briefly described, and then the current status and issues of the covariance data evaluation and utilization in the fields of the nuclear data measurement, evaluation and application are presented. Furthermore, several methods to assure the reliability of the covariance data are proposed, and finally, some guidelines such that what kind of covariance data provided in the evaluated nuclear data files are desirable, and what kinds of attention the users should take care in utilizing the covariance data are proposed as a conclusion of the working group.
Shimada, Kazumasa; Takahara, Shogo
JAEA-Review 2021-013, 142 Pages, 2021/09
In this report, the authors reviewed the published reports of Evacuation Time Estimation (ETE) conducted in Japan and United States and examined the issues of ETE in Japan. The authors obtained public ETE reports in Japan from 16 prefectures up to February 2020. In addition, the authors obtained 58 ETE reports in United States from 2011 to 2018. Next, the overview of ETE for the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) around the nuclear power plant in United States was described based on the NUREG/CR-7002 of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Then, based on the guidance of the ETE of the Cabinet Office of Japan, the overview of ETE in Japan for the Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) and the Urgent Protective Action Planning Zone (UPZ) was described and compared with the ETE in United States. It was found that ETE in Japan often outputs only the time of 90% or 100% that population complete evacuation. Therefore, in order to use ETE in Japan for emergency decision-making, it is necessary to unify the inputs and outputs of ETE as in the United States' ETE reports.
Nuclear Human Resource Development Center
JAEA-Review 2021-010, 70 Pages, 2021/09
This annual report summarizes the activities of Nuclear Human Resource Development Center (NuHRDeC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the fiscal year (FY) 2019.
Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yamaji, Akifumi*
JAEA-Research 2021-006, 52 Pages, 2021/09
In Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (referred to as "FDNPS" hereafter) unit2 and unit3, failure of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and relocation of some core materials (CRD piping elements and upper tie plate, etc.) to the pedestal region have been confirmed. In boiling water reactors (BWRs), complicated core support structures and control rod drive mechanisms are installed in the RPV lower head and its upper and lower regions, so that the relocation behavior of core materials to pedestal region is expected to be also complicated. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is expected to be effective in overviewing the relocation behavior of core materials in complicated RPV lower structure of BWRs, because of its Lagrangian nature in tracking complex interfaces. In this study, for the purpose of RPV ablation analysis of FDNPS unit2 and unit3, rigid body model, parallelization method and improved calculation time step control method were developed in FY 2019 and improvement of pressure boundary condition treatment, stabilization of rigid body model, and calculation cost reduction of debris bed melting simulation were achieved in FY2020. These improvements enabled sensitivity analyses of melting, relocation and re-distribution behavior of deposited solid debris in RPV lower head on various cases, within practical calculation cost. As a result of the analyses of FDNPS unit2 and unit3, it was revealed that aspect (particles/ingots) and distribution (degree of stratification) of solidified debris in lower plenum have a great impact on the elapsed time of the following debris reheat and partial melting and on molten pool formation process, further influencing RPV lower head failure behavior and fuel debris discharging behavior.
Kagami, Saya; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Umeda, Koji*
JAEA-Testing 2021-001, 49 Pages, 2021/08
To make a contribution to safety assessment for geological disposal of high level radioactive and/or TRU waste, we need to assess long-term stability of geological environment and predict long-term changes of geotectonic events that will occur in the future, especially for Quaternary period ( 2.6 million years ago-present). In the most case, we investigate chronological data of geological events by radiometric dating. When some geological samples have no objects to which radiometric dating method can be applied (e.g., zircon, biotite, wood fragments and plant residues), we can use tephrochronology, which is geological dating method using each layer of tephra (erupted volcanic ash), for dating of geological layers. This chronological method is essential in Japan, where volcanism is very active. Tephra is usually characterized by petrographic characteristics and/or chemical composition (mainly major elements) of volcanic glasses and/or minerals in tephra. In Tono Geoscience Center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), we develop an analytical technique of chemical composition including trace elements of volcanic glasses for detailed tephra identification. In this paper, we report a sample preparation procedure and analytical methods of chemical compositions of individual volcanic glass shards by using an electron probe microanalyzer and a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.
Nemoto, Miho*; Ebine, Noriya; Okamoto, Akiko; Hosaka, Yasuhisa*; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Terada, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko
JAEA-Technology 2021-013, 41 Pages, 2021/08
When North Korea has carried out nuclear tests, Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) predicts atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by using the WSPEEDI-II upon requests from Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) and submits the predicted results to NRA in cooperation with Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NSEC). This is a part of the activity of NEAT supporting the Japanese Government in emergency responses. The WSPEEDI-II automatic calculation system specialized for responses to nuclear tests by North Korea was developed by NSEC and was used for responses to three nuclear tests from February 2013 to September 2017. This report describes the transfer and installation of the calculation system to NEAT, and the subsequent maintenance and operation. Future issues for responses to nuclear tests are also described in this report.
Koike, Yuko; Yamada, Ryohei; Nagaoka, Mika; Nakano, Masanao; Ono, Yosuke; Suitsu, Yuichi
JAEA-Technology 2021-011, 39 Pages, 2021/08
In the Analyzed Liquid Treatment Facility of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNFL) MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (J-MOX), the interfere by salts with the analysis of gross alpha activity concentration analysis will be caused during the treatment process. Therefore, JNFL devised the desalting method using a solid-phase extraction chromatography. Japan Atomic Energy Agency carried out the experimental study to confirm the validity of this desalting method for the treatment liquid based on the contract with JNFL. This study consists of three experiments as follows: Step 1 - Selection of an optical solid-phase extraction agent, Step 2 - Evaluation of variation optical solid-phase extraction agent, and Step 3 - Application of the imitation liquid waste. The result of Step 1 determined the solid-phase extraction agent (InertSep ME-2) and the optimum condition (aspiration method by manifold (about 5-10 mL/min), 3M nitric acid as eluent, pH: 5, and no adjustment of ionic valence). Then, the result of Step 2 and 3 made sure the validation of this method by obtaining over 70% recovery for the imitation liquid waste sample of the Analyzed Liquid Treatment Facility of J-MOX.
Inagawa, Jun; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Takano, Masahide; Akie, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Osamu; Komuro, Michiyasu; Oura, Hirofumi*; Nagai, Isao*; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2021-001, 144 Pages, 2021/08
Plutonium Research Building No.1 (Pu1) was qualified as a facility to decommission, and preparatory operations for decommission were worked by the research groups users and the facility managers of Pu1. The operation of transportation of whole nuclear materials in Pu1 to Back-end Cycle Key Element Research Facility (BECKY) completed at Dec. 2020. In the operation included evaluation of criticality safety for changing permission of the license for use nuclear fuel materials in BECKY, cask of the transportation, the registration request of the cask at the institute, the test transportation, formulation of plan for whole nuclear materials transportation, and the main transportation. This report circumstantially shows all of those process to help prospective decommission.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Ogita, Yasuhiro; et al.
JAEA-Review 2021-012, 48 Pages, 2021/08
This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2021. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2021 are described in detail based on the JAEA 3rd Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.
Engineering Services Department
JAEA-Review 2021-011, 86 Pages, 2021/08
The Engineering Services Department is in charge of operation and maintenance of utility facilities (water distribution systems, electricity supply systems, steam generation systems and drain water systems etc.) in whole of the institute. And also is in charge of operation and maintenance of specific systems (power receiving and transforming facilities, an emergency electric power supply system, an air/liquid waste treatment system, a compressed air supply system) in nuclear reactor facilities, nuclear fuel treatment facilities and usual facilities or buildings. In addition, the department is in charge of maintenance of buildings, design and repair of electrical/mechanical equipments. This annual report describes summary of activities, operation and maintenance data and technical developments of the department carried out in JFY 2019.We hope that this report may help to future work.
Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*
JAEA-Research 2021-005, 25 Pages, 2021/08
An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into atmosphere. Accurate quantitative estimation of released Ru is one of the important issues for risk assessment of those facilities. To resolve this issue, an empirical correlation equation of Ru mass transfer coefficient across the vapor-liquid surface, which can be useful for quantitative simulation of Ru mitigating behavior, has been obtained from data analyses of small-scale experiments conducted to clarify gaseous Ru migrating behavior under steam-condensing condition. A simulation study has been also carried out with a hypothetical typical facility building successfully to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative estimation of amount of Ru migrating in the facility using the obtained correlation equation implemented in SCHERN computer code which simulates chemical behaviors of nitrogen oxide based on the condition also simulated thermal-hydraulic computer code.
Sakai, Toshihiro; Ishii, Eiichi
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-009, 13 Pages, 2021/08
Japan Atomic Energy Agency is performing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, which includes a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes, in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the sedimentary rock. The numerical data of 3D geological model in regional-scale was compiled in 2019 as JAEA-Data/Code 2019-007, and then this report updates a part of the numerical data of 3D geological model around the underground facilities.
Yoshida, Kazuo; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Hiyama, Mina*
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-008, 35 Pages, 2021/08
An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste (HLLW) is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, volatile radioactive materials, such as ruthenium (Ru) are released from the tanks with water and nitric-acid mixed vapor into atmosphere. In addition to this, nitrogen oxides (NO) are also released formed by the thermal decomposition of metal nitrates of fission products (FP) in HLLW. It has been observed experimentally that NOx affects to the migration behavior of Ru at the anticipated atmosphere condition in cells and/or compartments of the facility building. Chemical reactions of NO with water and nitric acid are also recognized as the complex phenomena to undergo simultaneously in the vapor and liquid phases. The analysis program, SCHERN has been under developed to simulate chemical behavior including Ru coupled with the thermo-hydraulic condition in the flow paths in the facility building. This technical guide for SCHERN-V2 presents the overview of covered accident, analytical models including newly developed models, differential equations for numerical solution, and user instructions.
Horita, Takuma; Yamagishi, Isao; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kashiwaya, Ryunosuke*
JAEA-Technology 2021-012, 34 Pages, 2021/07
Waste mainly consisting of carbonate precipitates (carbonate slurry) from the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) and the improved ALPS at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Holdings, Inc. have been storing in the High Integrity Container (HIC). The supernatant solution of carbonate slurry contained in some of HICs were overflowed in April of 2015. The all of level of liquid in the HICs were investigated; however, almost of the HICs were under the level of overflow. The mechanism of overflow suggested to be depending on the difference of the properties of the carbonate slurry such as the retention/release characteristics of the bubbles. Therefore, in order to clarify the mechanism of leakage, the repeatability experiment was carried out by using simulated carbonate slurry. The simulated carbonate slurry was perpetrated by using the same cross-flow filter system of the actual ALPS. Moreover, the preparative conditions for the simulated carbonate slurry were the same as Mg/Ca concentration ratio in inlet water of the ALPS (raw water) and the ALPS operating conditions. The chemical characteristics of simulated carbonate slurries were revealed by ICP-AES, pH meter, etc. The density of the settled slurry layer tended to increase depending on the calcium concentration in the raw water. The bubble injection test was conducted in order to investigate the bubble retention/release behavior in the simulated carbonate slurry layer. The simulated carbonate slurry with high settling density, which was generated by high calcium concentration solution was revealed to retain the injected bubbles. Since the ratio of concentration calcium and magnesium during the carbonate slurry generation is assumed to affect the retention of bubbles in the slurry layer, the information on the composition of raw water is one of important factor for overflow of HICs.