Task Force on Research Strategy for Debris of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station
JAEA-Review 2020-055, 173 Pages, 2020/12
Design, planning and control of debris-related processes, namely retrieval, storage management, processing and disposal of the debris, are required for the safe and steady decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). Status inside primary containment vessel of 1F must be known by the PCV investigation and fuel debris sample analysis. Continuous updating and improvement of the process design are important through ascertainment of the cause of the accident. The roadmap for the 1F decommissioning have shown the milestone of commencement of trial retrieval of fuels debris within 2021, which indicates the analysis of fuel debris sample begin in earnest. This report recommends required debris analysis in relation with issues for the retrieval, storage management, processing and disposal, and ascertainment of the cause of the 1F accident. Practical analysis plan is expected to be prepared based on this report.
Sector of Fukushima Research and Development
JAEA-Review 2020-023, 140 Pages, 2020/12
The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, caused the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Ltd. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), as a designated institution of the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures, supported lots of activities on emergency response, environmental remediation and so on. As a unique nuclear R&D institution, JAEA conducted the Research and Development on Fukushima Daiichi Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration. This report summarizes the 10 years' JAEA activities on Fukushima Revitalization, including emergency responses just after the accident, construction on the R&D organization and infrastructures, results of R&D towards 1F decommissioning and environmental restoration and so on.
Kawabata, Kuniaki; Yamada, Taichi; Abe, Hiroyuki*
JAEA-Technology 2020-015, 37 Pages, 2020/11
This report describes the test procedures for evaluating running performances of remotely operated robot utilized for nuclear emergency responses and decommissioning. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings Inc. (FDNPS) occurred, remotely operated robots have been deployed and utilized in the response tasks. Such post-accident work experience and lessons learned are very valuable for developing the robots in the future. Therefore, we were motivated to develop the test methods for performance evaluation of the robot by referring with such experiences and lessons. Based on our examinations, in order to execute the response and decommissioning tasks, the robots are required to run through the space without enough margin and avoiding collisions, to move on stairs while avoiding tumbling or falling down and to drag a cable while avoiding problems caused by the cable entwining around objects. This report describes three test procedures for quantitatively evaluating the performances which are for running narrow passage, climbing up/down on the stairs and running with dragging the cable. Typical course layout and the demonstration of test running are also illustrated for the references.
Sono, Hiroki; Sukegawa, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Norio; Okuda, Eiichi; Study Team on Safety and Maintenance; Study Team on Quality Management; Task Force on New Nuclear Regulatory Inspection Systems
JAEA-Technology 2020-013, 460 Pages, 2020/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has completed the introduction of a new frame work of safety, maintenance and quality management activities under the new acts on the Regulation of nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactors since April 2020, in consideration of variety, specialty and similarity of nuclear facilities of JAEA (Power reactor in the research and development stage, Reprocessing facility, Fabrication facility, Waste treatment facility, Waste burial facility, Research reactor and Nuclear fuel material usage facility). The JAEA task forces on new nuclear regulatory inspection systems prepared new guidelines on (1) Safety and maintenance, (2) Independent inspection, (3) Welding inspection, (4) Free-access response, (5) Performance indicators and (6) Corrective action program for the JAEA's nuclear facilities. New Quality management systems and new Safety regulations were also prepared as a typical pattern of these facilities. JAEA will steadily improve these guidelines, quality management systems and safety regulations, reviewing the official activities under the new regulatory inspection system together with the Nuclear Regulation Authority and other nuclear operators.
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-022, 34 Pages, 2020/11
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the URL will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. JAEA summarizes the research and development activities of the important issues carried out during the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan, and set out three important issues after 2020 fiscal year. After consultation with Hokkaido and Horonobe town, JAEA formulated the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year within the 3rd and 4th Mid- and Long-term Plan. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2020 fiscal year (2020/2021).
Nuclear Safety Research Center, Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness
JAEA-Review 2020-020, 144 Pages, 2020/11
Nuclear Safety Research Center (NSRC), Sector of Nuclear Safety Research and Emergency Preparedness, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) provides technical supports for the nuclear regulatory bodies by conducting safety researches based on the Mid-Long Term Target approved by the Japanese government. This report summarizes the research structure of NSRC and the cooperative research activities with domestic and international organizations as well as the nuclear safety research activities and results in JFY 2019 on the nine research fields in NSRC; (1) severe accident, (2) radiation risk, (3) nuclear fuels in light water reactors (LWRs), (4) thermohydraulic behavior in LWRs, (5) materials degradation and structural integrity, (6) nuclear fuel cycle facilities, (7) criticality management, (8) nuclear safeguards, and (9) radioactive waste management.
Safety and Environmental Management Section, Safety and Nuclear Security Administration Department
JAEA-Review 2020-019, 196 Pages, 2020/11
We have prepared Annual Report "Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" as a means for comprehensively reporting on the activities of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In September, 2019 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published results of environmental activity as a part of Annual Report "Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" concerning the activities of FY 2018 under "Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures". This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2018 as the base of "Annual Report Japan Atomic Energy Agency 2019" and its additional information's. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promotion of environment-conscious activities in JAEA.
Oto, Tsutomu; Asano, Norikazu; Kawamata, Takanori; Yanai, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Arashi; Araki, Daisuke; Otsuka, Kaoru; Takabe, Yugo; Otsuka, Noriaki; Kojima, Keidai; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-018, 66 Pages, 2020/11
A collapse event of the cooling tower of secondary cooling system in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was caused by the strong wind of Typhoon No.15 on September 9, 2019. The cause of the collapse of the cooling tower was investigated and analyzed. As the result, it was identified that four causes occurred in combination. Thus, the soundness of the cooling tower of Utility Cooling Loop (UCL cooling tower), which is a wooden cooling tower installed at the same period as the cooling tower of secondary cooling system, was investigated. The items of soundness survey are to grasp the operation conditions of the UCL cooling tower, to confirm the degradation of structural materials, the inspection items and inspection status of the UCL cooling tower, and to investigate the past meteorological data. As the results of soundness survey of the UCL cooling tower, the improvement of inspection items of the UCL cooling tower was carried out and the replacement and repair of the structural materials of the UCL cooling tower were planned for safe maintenance and management of this facility. And the renewal plan of new cooling tower was created to replace the existing UCL cooling tower. This report is summarized the soundness survey of the UCL cooling tower.
Goto, Akira; Sasaki, Akimichi*; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Miwa, Atsushi*; Terusawa, Shuji*; Kagohara, Kyoko*; Shimada, Koji
JAEA-Research 2020-013, 88 Pages, 2020/11
Improvement of the investigation techniques to identify active faults is important for the implementation of geological disposal projects from the viewpoint of avoiding locations where permeability increases due to fault displacement. Generally, the existence of active faults is confirmed by aerial photography interpretation of fault displacement topography, which is a topographical trace of fault movement, and on-site geological surveys. However, the investigation method for cases where the topographical traces are unclear is not sufficiently developed. Therefore, to improve existing topographical methods, this study deciphered lineaments up to the rank of poorly defined features, which are almost neglected in general active fault research. The investigation area is one of the geodetic strain concentration zone, called the southern Kyushu shear zone, where the seismogenic faults of the 1997 Kagoshima northwest earthquakes are concealed. We conducted aerial photography interpretation of 62 sheets of 1/25,000 topographic maps, and obtained 1,327 lineaments. Distribution density, direction and length of lineaments were also investigated with topographic and geologic information. As a result, it was clarified that the east-west lineaments in the south Kyushu shear zone predominate in the western part, and the lineaments are densely distributed in the aftershock distribution area of the Kagoshima northwest earthquake. Along with these results, we have compiled a catalog of typical 13 lineaments based on combinations of clarity, direction, length and geomorphic characters of lineaments.
Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Uyama, Masao*; Nakaoka, Kenichi*; Fukaya, Masaaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2020-010, 142 Pages, 2020/11
In the geological disposal study of high-level radioactive waste, it is suggested that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) which is created around a tunnel by the excavation will be possible to be one of the critical path of radionuclides. Especially, the progress of cracks in and around the EDZ with time affects the safety assessment of geological disposal and it is important to understand the hydraulic change due to the progress of cracks in and around EDZ. In this collaborative research, monitoring tools made by Obayashi Corporation were installed at a total of 9 locations in the three boreholes near the depth of 370 m of East Shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory constructed in the Neogene sedimentary rock. The monitoring tool consists of one set of "optical AE sensor" for measuring of the mechanical rock mass behavior and "optical pore water pressure sensor and optical temperature sensor" for measuring of groundwater behavior. This tool was made for the purpose of selecting and analyzing of AE signal waveforms due to rock fracture during and after excavation of the target deep shaft. As a result of analyzing various measurement data including AE signal waveforms, it is able to understand the information on short-term or long-term progress of cracks in and around EDZ during and after excavation in the deep shaft. In the future, it will be possible to carry out a study that contributes to the long-term stability evaluation of EDZ in sedimentary rocks in the deep part of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory by evaluation based on these analytical data.
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-016, 15 Pages, 2020/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, targeting in crystalline rock. This report summarized the digital data of local scale and site scale geological model and hydrogeological model constructed in the MIU project and the Regional hydraulic study.
Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-015, 22 Pages, 2020/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, targeting in crystalline rock. The main goals of the MIU Project from Phase I to Phase III are: to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a base of engineering for deep underground application. The groundwater inflow monitoring into shafts and research galleries, has been conducted to achieve the Phase II goals. Furthermore, these monitoring were ceased at the end of FY2019 due to the completion of the MIU project. This report describes the results of the groundwater inflow monitoring from April 2019 to March 2020.
Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-011, 50 Pages, 2020/11
This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic test carried out at the -300 m Stage and the -500 m Stage of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory from FY 2016 to FY 2019. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical methods used are presented in this report. Furthermore, the previous results of the single borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the Regional Hydrogeological Study Project and the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project before FY 2016 are also summarized in this report.
Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10
There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived C) and stable carbon (C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for C (and stable nitrogen isotope, N) and C analyses; and C, N, and C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.
Kokusen, Junya; Akasaka, Shingo*; Shimizu, Osamu; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Honda, Junichi; Harada, Katsuya; Okamoto, Hisato
JAEA-Technology 2020-011, 70 Pages, 2020/10
The Uranium Enrichment Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was constructed in 1972 for the purpose of uranium enrichment research. The smoke emitting accident on 1989 and the fire accident on 1997 had been happened in this facility. The research on uranium enrichment was completed in JFY1998. The decommissioning work was started including the transfer of the nuclear fuel material to the other facility in JFY2012. The decommissioning work was completed in JFY2019 which are consisting of removing the hood, dismantlement of wall and ceiling with contamination caused by fire accident. The releasing the controlled area was performed after the confirmation of any contamination is not remained in the target area. The radioactive waste was generated while decommissioning, burnable and non-flammable are 1.7t and 69.5t respectively. The Laboratory will be used as a general facility for cold experiments.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; et al.
JAEA-Research 2020-011, 67 Pages, 2020/10
This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 5th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
Misono, Toshiharu; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shiribiki, Takehiko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Urabe, Yoshimi*
JAEA-Research 2020-008, 166 Pages, 2020/10
After the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), marine monitoring survey on radioactive substances have been conducted with financially supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency from FY2019. Results obtain in the project in FY2019 are presented in this report. Based on scientific grounds, the concept necessary for "progress of sea area monitoring" was arranged for the future medium- to long-term investigation of radiocesium concentrations. As basic information of survey frequency revise, a seabed topography and sediment distribution survey was conducted, and an attempt was made to understand the relationship between the seabed topography and the grain size distribution of bottom sediment. A columnar core sample was collected in the coastal area and analyzed for radioactive cesium concentration. In order to understand the dynamics of radioactive cesium contained in suspended matter flowing in from a river, suspended solids was collected using a sediment trap and the concentration of radioactive cesium was measured. We re-analyzed the towed monitoring data that had been implemented since 2013, and tried to improve the accuracy of the radioactive cesium distribution estimation map in the coastal area.
Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.
JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10
The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-014, 30 Pages, 2020/10
The decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is one of the most important issues in Japan. In the process of the decommissioning, preventing radiation exposure of workers is imperative originating in nuclear criticality of fuel debris. This study provides the handy tool enabling the analysis on nuclear criticality of fuel debris. The developed analysis tool named as HAND enables estimation of the criticality of fuel debris in short time. HAND deduces the range of parameters such as the size and composition, in which the criticality of fuel debris is specified. By selecting the range of the parameters using HAND in advance, total calculation time of the detail analysis will be reduced. Since the input data of HAND is designed to be simple and the output of HAND is to be user friendly, this tool is expected to be also an intuitive tool to study the criticality of fuel debris. This report explains the outline of the HAND and input instructions for HAND.
Fukuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yusuke; Murakami, Hiroaki; Amano, Yuki; Aosai, Daisuke*; Hara, Naohiro*
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-012, 80 Pages, 2020/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the influence of excavation and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry and microbiology obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2019. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method and analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described.